The leaflet is a very beautiful garden fern that can also be grown as a houseplant. Unlike other representatives, it has whole leaves, so the leaflet in the photo looks very bright and unusual. It is often also called kostenets or phyllitis. The plant lives in the Mediterranean and at the foot of the European mountains, in shady and humid areas.
Leaf fern is an evergreen perennial from the Kostentsov family. The plant has a straight, slightly branched rhizome of medium length. The roots are covered with small scales and form a small compaction on the soil surface.
The ground part of the bush consists of petioled foliage. On short, dense petioles, which barely reach a third of the length of the leaf, there are entire lanceolate or belt-shaped leaves. Their length is 20-50 cm, and their width is about 4-7 cm. Young leaves appear in spring and at first resemble a twisted snail shell, over time they straighten. The upper side of the frond is leathery, bright green. On the leaf plate, transverse stripes are visible, like the intended pattern of feathery foliage.
On the back, darker side of the frond's surface, there are sori. They resemble grayish transverse stripes, located symmetrically. In them, under a thin film, numerous spores mature.
In total, 10 species are registered in the genus of leaflet, but only a small part of the plants is used in culture. The most common is centipede or common leaf... It is common in the European and American foothills. The fern forms a small bush, up to 60 cm high. The width of petiolate belt-shaped leaves is 3-5 cm. The base of the leaf is cordate, and the edges are slightly wavy. The foliage is straight and only tilts slightly to the sides. Greenish or brown scales are visible on the petiole. Within this variety, several decorative varieties have been bred:
- undulata - fronds have beautiful wavy edges,
- marginatum - differs in narrowed, lobed fronds,
- cristatum - the edges of the whole frond have a comb-like shape,
- crispa - a curly variety with a perforated edge and bright green leaves,
- Ramo Cristatum is a highly decorative variety with branched and highly wavy foliage.
Japanese leaflet. The plant is widespread in the vastness of Asia: from shady foothills to the shores of fresh water bodies. Lanceolate-belt-shaped, leathery leaves form a wide rosette. They grow strongly in breadth, exposing the central part of the rosette. The length of dense foliage is 20-40 cm.
The leaflet can be propagated vegetatively or by seed. When transplanting, it is enough to cut off a part of the rhizome with growth buds. Its length should be at least 20 cm. The procedure is best carried out in early spring, until young fronds begin to appear. The place of the cut is sprinkled with crushed coal and placed in peat-sandy soil. Cover the pot with plastic wrap and leave in a cool, light place.
Healthy fern leaves can be rooted in the same way. It is important to maintain high air humidity and periodically spray the soil with a spray bottle. The rooting process is quite difficult and can take almost a year. Not all segments are rooted.
Seed propagation is considered to be more efficient. Spores mature in large volumes and remain highly germinating for 5-8 years. Flat wide containers with peat are prepared for planting. They try to distribute the spores evenly over the surface; it is not necessary to sprinkle them with earth.Cover the plate with foil or glass and put it in a warm, bright place. Every day, the ground is ventilated for 15-30 minutes and, if necessary, sprayed with water.
After 2-5 weeks, the soil surface will be covered with dense greens of young shoots. The grown seedlings dive into small pots, in which peat, heather earth and sand are equally mixed. After 2-3 weeks, the pick is repeated. Seedlings are actively developing and by the end of the first year they look like an adult plant.
The leaflet requires more careful care at home, but rewards the efforts with bright and very beautiful shoots. The best place for him will be a shaded and damp area of the garden. When growing indoors, it is worth choosing a cool room with diffused lighting. In excessively bright light, the foliage of the leaf becomes yellowish, which reduces its attractiveness. Fern can be placed in the darkest areas where other flowers feel uncomfortable.
The leaflet needs regular ventilation and fresh air. The optimum temperature is + 20… + 22 ° C. The plant is not afraid of drafts and nighttime cold snaps, but the summer heat is a real test of endurance. In winter, for indoor specimens, it is necessary to create a cooler atmosphere (+ 12 ... + 15 ° C). Garden plants can hibernate with shelter, they do not shed bright foliage.
The leaflet needs regular watering. The soil should not dry out, but stagnant water is also undesirable. It is better to water the fern daily or every other day in small portions. It is useful to often spray fronds, as well as place bowls with wet pebbles or expanded clay nearby. Neighborhood with a small pond or fountain is encouraged. In dry air, the leaves can dry out a little. As a resuscitation, you can periodically bathe the fern under a weak warm shower.
Usually, the leaflet gets everything it needs from the soil. Fertilizers are applied only to impoverished lands. Once a month from May to September, half the dose of the mineral complex for deciduous plants is added to the water for irrigation.
Every 2-3 years the leaflet needs a transplant, and every 8 years in rejuvenation and division of the bush. For this, a ready-made fern substrate is used. You can also make the mixture yourself from the following ingredients:
- leafy soil (2 parts),
- river sand (1 part),
- chopped bark (1 part).
A thick drainage layer is laid out at the bottom of the hole or flower pot. The rhizome is placed on the surface without deepening the apical buds.
Possible care difficulties
The leaflet has strong immunity and does not suffer from parasite attacks. Problems can only be associated with improper care. Let's dwell on the most common problems:
- the leaves of the leaf turn yellow - the air is too hot and dry,
- the color of the leaves becomes faded - a long stay in direct sunlight,
- slowing down or stopping growth - overflow, possible decay of the rhizome.
The leaflet looks spectacular on rocky areas and under dense thickets of trees. You can plant a fern near coniferous thickets or along the shore of a small reservoir. Decorative bunches of leaves decorate the room and blend well with other ferns. A composition of several decorative varieties in a wide pot or on a flower bed will become a real masterpiece.
Three-leaf watch (Menyanthes trifoliáta) - this is the name of this plant. Shamrock is a perennial herb common in temperate climates in the Northern Hemisphere. The area of its distribution - from the arctic to subtropical zones of Europe and Asia, as well as North America. This plant is widely cultivated in the central part of Russia (Siberia and the Urals), in the Far East, in the southern part of Belarus, in Ukraine.
The ecological niche that this plant occupies in phytocenoses is also diverse.This plant can be found in swamps, on the banks of a stagnant body of water or with a small current, in the shady part of the forest and in the composition of meadow plants.
To the question "Shamrock is a plant of which ecotope?" the answer is unequivocal: rather broad. In this regard, its morpho forms may differ slightly. For example, the flowers at the watch may have a color ranging from pale pink to lilac. And the height of the grass can vary from 10 to 35 centimeters.
It has a branched and powerful creeping rhizome, which serves as an organ of vegetative reproduction.
Features of appearance
The shape of the leaf plate is unchanged for the trefoil plant - it consists of three obovate parts. The leaves are arranged alternately, with a long petiole, large and basal.
Trefoil flowers are collected in a raceme inflorescence, located on a long stalk. The formula of the bell-shaped flower is K5C5A5G2. The shamrock blooms in May and June, while the flowers open alternately. The plant is cross-pollinated and is a good honey plant. Fruits (bolls with 2 valves) ripen by the end of August.
The pubescent flower petals make the banks of the bogs white, as if they are on watch. Together with sedge, horsetails and ferns, the trefoil (the photo below demonstrates all the beauty and tenderness of the inflorescence) forms impassable thickets.
One plant has many names. As already mentioned, it is called a watch for its location on the boundaries of reservoirs. The name shamrock is associated with the shape of the leaf plate.
The specific name vakhta-trifol is derived from the Greek word that means "I open", hinting at the successive opening of flowers in the inflorescence. In the works of ancient botanists, the Latin name for the watch is found - theophrastus, from the words "month" and "flower", because its flowers do not close at night.
The people call the shamrock plant fever, female toad, consumptive grass, bean.
The Legend of Bitterness
Shamrock leaves taste bitter. Where did this bitterness come from? An ancient legend tells. The wicked stepmother drowned her stepdaughter, but the deity of the lake, the queen of the Magi, did not give her to drown. The only condition for the girl, who turned into a mermaid, was not to leave the pond. But the girl disobeyed and ran away to meet her gnome friends. For this Volkhva forced her to stand "on watch", on the border of land and lake. The mermaid cried for so long that it turned into a plant that itself became bitter from her bitter tears.
From litter to medicine
In nature, the plant is food for beavers, muskrats, elk and other forest dwellers. Pollination occurs with the help of insects, but the flowers do not have special nectaries and have absolutely no smell.
The trefoil became a medicinal plant in the 17th century. It was used in the treatment of fever, dropsy, jaundice. It was widely used for the treatment and healing of wounds in pets.
The leaf powder can be used as a seasoning for meat dishes to add bitterness. Trefoil leaves are used in brewing to add flavor and bitterness to beer. The watch is also used to make green paint for painting.
Find for a garden pond
This unpretentious and rapidly multiplying plant by rhizomes can be a wonderful decoration for garden ponds. Flowers with a white fluffy corolla do not close at night and create a halo of glow around the artificial pond.
To breed it in an artificial reservoir, it is enough to throw the seeds of a trefoil or dig in its rhizome on the shore. Sometimes the trefoil is placed in a container with holes and placed on the bottom, and removed after flowering. You can use the trefoil as a houseplant, but then it is more often called common sour.
The shamrock does not require special care.
Healing only leaves
In pharmacology, only mature green leaves of the shamrock herb are used, which contain flavone glycosides (they give bitterness), the amino acids methianine, gentianine, tannins and choline, unsaturated fatty acids (cholesterol antagonists) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). But at the same time, it is very important to assemble and prepare them correctly.
The collection of raw materials is carried out immediately after the flowers have faded. Apical and young leaves are not harvested. In addition, they will turn black immediately upon drying. Ripe leaves are cut off with a shank. For drying, the leaves are placed in the shade and in the air. Drying is possible in special dryers, where the temperature is maintained at about 40 ° C.
The finished raw material is green dry leaves of the shamrock plant, thin and odorless, and tastes bitter. Moisture content of raw materials - no more than 14%.
The shelf life of dried leaves is no more than 2 years.
The shamrock herb is actively used in folk medicine for the following problems:
- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Loss of appetite.
- Nervous system disorders.
- Inflammatory processes of various etiologies.
- For constipation.
The high content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in tinctures was previously used to treat scurvy. Bitter glycosides increase the secretion of the glands of the intestinal tract and pancreas, stimulate the outflow of bile. The watch leaves also contain iodine, so they are used for external healing of wounds and ulcers, with periodontal disease and gingivitis, stomatitis, tonsillitis and trophic ulcers. Tannins help to remove from the body half-life products of strontium-90 and other heavy metals, which prevents the development of leukemia and radiation sickness.
The medical industry supplies a ready-made tincture of trefoil extract, and its leaves are part of the bitter tincture. In addition, this herb is included in many dietary supplements (dietary supplements).
Infusions and tinctures
The use of preparations containing a three-leaf watch improves mood, stimulates metabolism. They have a sedative, blood-purifying, anticonvulsant, anti-febrile, analgesic and restorative effect on the human body.
The antipyretic effect when taking the infusion from the three-leaf watch has its effect within an hour.
The watch is a part of medicinal herbal preparations with sedative, choleretic and laxative effects.
Homeopathy uses this herb to treat glaucoma, colds, nervous disorders and headaches.
But it is important to remember that decoctions and tinctures will not replace the main treatment. And although there are no contraindications and side effects when using the watch, it is advisable to consult with specialists before using it.
And of course, pregnant women and nursing mothers should not experiment with this herb.
Traditional medicine and shamrock
On the basis of this herb, medicinal decoctions and infusions, alcoholic tinctures, and teas are prepared.
With gastritis and lack of appetite, take 1 gram of dry powder from the leaves 3 times a day. Or they prepare an alcoholic tincture: 50 grams of herbs are poured with 200 grams of vodka and insisted in a dark place for a week. Alcohol tincture is taken 15 drops 3 times a day before meals.
When coughing and bronchial asthma, decoctions are taken, which are prepared as follows: 1 tablespoon of the herb is poured with a glass of boiling water, the cooled infusion is filtered. They drink this broth 3 times a day for 1/3 cup. The same broth is taken half a glass before meals three times a day for problems in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
In some recipes, the rhizome of the trefoil is also used. It contains alkaloids, saponins and pectins.
Dry powder from the leaves is sprinkled on wounds and ulcers.
For external use, a steeper infusion is prepared, in the proportion of 10 grams of three-leaf watch leaves for 250 milliliters of boiling water.The infusion is filtered and used for compresses, lotions, for rinsing the mouth in case of inflammatory processes (stomatitis, gingivitis and tonsillitis).
Water tinctures are also used as enemas to relieve hemorrhoid symptoms and as an anthelmintic drug. standard proportions of solutions are 10 grams of grass per 100 milliliters of water.
You can use diluted decoctions for soothing baths. Such baths are also used for scrofula in children.
You can also make kvass
Fans of exotic flavored drinks can make kvass based on trefoil. To do this, take freshly picked leaves, wash, grind and boil for 10 minutes. Sugar and dry yeast are added to the cooled broth. After 12 hours, the refreshing drink is ready. The proportions of the ingredients are as follows: for 1 liter of water 50 grams of leaves, 70 grams of sugar and 1.5 grams of yeast.
It is known about at least ten types of amazing fern, which grow well both in the garden and in indoor conditions, differing from each other in the structure of the leaves.
The most popular ones are:
- Japanese leaf is a species common in Japan. In Russia, it lives on the Kuril Islands, Primorye and Sakhalin. It is noteworthy that each frond has its own direction, which makes the plant chaotic and peculiar. The leaves of this species are long and smooth, dark green in color,
- crisp leaf - garden species with bright green leaves that have beautiful crests,
- common leaf (centipede) is the most common type. In natural conditions, it grows in mountainous areas. We can grow both at home and in the garden,
- undulat leaflet is characterized by a wavy leaf blade. It is used beautifully in landscaping.
Fern leaf: reproduction
Reproduction occurs by dividing or planting spores:
- In the first way, the fern is propagated in the spring when transplanting, separating a part of the rhizome with growth buds from the adult plant and placing it in a separate pot with specially prepared soil for rooting.
- The second method can be carried out in the fall, after collecting the spores.
The plant requires careful care:
- fern does not tolerate bright light. It is best to place it in the back of the room or on the north window,
- in summer, the air temperature should not exceed +20 - + 25 degrees, and in winter the flower is at rest, therefore the temperature is reduced to + 12- +15,
- water the leaflet all year round quite abundantly, but you should not allow stagnation of moisture in the pot. Watering is carried out with settled water,
- ferns need moist air, especially in hot weather. He also loves a warm shower. It is best to place a pot with a flower near a source of moisture - an aquarium or indoor fountain,
- the plant is fed neatly and not very often - once a month with complex fertilizer for indoor flowers.
This is a nomadic species of birds that is found in many parts of our planet. Their lifestyle is associated with the fact that during cold periods they migrate to warmer habitats.
These are small birds, with a body length of no more than 27 centimeters and a wingspan of no more than 38 centimeters. Depending on the species, individuals can weigh in the range from 40 to 100 grams. The eyes of the bird are located on the sides of the head, so the thrushes tilt their heads to one side when looking for food. Due to their characteristic external features, thrushes are not difficult to distinguish from other bird species.
The beak of this bird is relatively short and can have a gray or yellow tint. At the same time, the nostrils are open, and the color of the plumage does not differ in variegated color. Many species have a gray plumage with dark specks located randomly on the body. Some varieties have a pure black plumage. The wings are not long and have a rounded shape. The tail is rectangular with 12 pieces of tail feathers.The legs are relatively short, but strong enough, while at their ends one can see accrete horny plates.
Character and lifestyle
These birds are distinguished by a difficult character, more restless, because, finding themselves in a difficult situation, the bird begins to make loud sounds. This especially happens when she, for some reason, lagged behind her pack. Thrushes are considered migratory birds, so they spend the winter in comfortable conditions, in warm regions. Birds do this imperceptibly and silently, so many do not notice either the presence of thrushes or their absence.
In search of food, blackbirds move along the surface of the earth with characteristic and frequent jumps, as well as long pauses between them. After wintering, they can return to their nesting sites, both as part of a flock and as separate individuals. If food is sufficient for them, then they may postpone their flight for some time or may even stay for the winter.
An interesting moment! In the case of a solo flight, scientists believe that birds may lag behind their flock or may go off course. Despite this, birds still find their natural habitats.
Returning to their nesting sites in the spring, the blackbirds start building nests, which are placed either on stumps or in trees. If there are no predators within their nesting grounds, then the birds locate their nests right on the ground.
How many blackbirds live
The lifespan of these birds depends on the conditions of their habitat, the presence of natural enemies and the availability of food resources. It is believed that wild thrushes can live from 11 to 15 years. In captivity, with proper maintenance, these birds live up to 17 and a half years. In natural conditions, which are distinguished by the absence of natural enemies and an abundance of food, thrushes live no less.