|Index Fungorum||Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.) Maire|
|MycoBank||Panaeolina foenisecii (Persoon) Maire|
Etymology of the species epithet
Foenisecii noun haymaking. Gen. sing. to foenisecium, in haymaking.
- Agaricus foenisecii Pers., Icon. Desc. Fung. Min. Cognit. (Leipzig) 2:42 (1800)
- Prunulus foenisecii (Pers.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London) 1: 631 (1821)
- Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.) Quél., Mém. Soc. Émul. Montbéliard, Sér. 2 5: 147 (1872)
- Drosophila foenisecii (Pers.) Quél., Enchir. fung. (Paris): 117 (1886)
- Coprinarius foenisecii (Pers.) J. Schröt., In Cohn, Krypt.-Fl. Schlesien (Breslau) 3.1 (33-40): 565 (1889)
- Psathyra foenisecii (Pers.) G. Bertrand, Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 17: 277 (1901)
- Panaeolus foenisecii (Pers.) J. Schröt., Botaniste 17: 187 (1926)
- Psathyrella foenisecii (Pers.) A.H. Sm., Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn 24: 32 (1972)
For the first time the species was described by Christian Hendrik Persoon (1761 - 1836) in 1800 as Agaricus foenisecii... In 1933, René Charles Joseph Maire (1878 - 1949) singled it out into a new genus - Paneolina (Panaeolina), indicating the key difference from representatives of the genus paneolus (Panaeolus) roughness of disputes.
The cap is 10 - 20 (25) mm in diameter, at a young age hemispherical, conical, bell-shaped when ripe, prostrate, with a tubercle in the center, hygrophane. The surface is smooth, when wet it is dark brown, brown, reddish-brown, when dry it brightens to a gray-brown, beige color, the center of the cap usually remains dark brown. The edge is smooth.
The plates are adherent, at first light, gray-brown, when ripe they darken to a dark brown color. Due to unevenly maturing spores, a characteristic variegated pattern of dark and light spots is formed on the plates. The edge of the plate is finely fringed.
Leg 30 - 80 mm long, 1 - 3 mm in diameter, cylindrical, often curved, hollow. The surface is smooth, usually slightly lighter than the cap, brown, light brown, with a red tint, in the upper part with fine light pubescence.
The flesh is thin, brown. The smell and taste are soft, mushroom.
Spores (11.5) 13 - 17 (22) × (7.0) 8.5 - 11 μm, Q = 1.7 - 2.2, ellipsoidal, almond-shaped, thick-walled, sometimes germinating, brown.
Basidia 26 - 32 × 12 - 15 μm, clavate, 2-, 4-spore.
Cheilocystids 25 - 50 × 5 - 11 μm, bottle-shaped.
Pileipellis consists of pear-shaped elements 35 - 60 × 15 - 35 µm, with yellow pigment and in some cases with inlay.
Ecology and distribution
It grows in groups in the grass in fields and parks, on pastures, forest glades and lawns, especially abundantly soon after mowing the grass. Cosmopolitan. In Western Siberia, in suitable habitats, it is found everywhere.
The divisions correspond to the decades of the month.
The fungus is weakly poisonous, contains 5-hydroxytryptophan (oxytriptan) and its derivative 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), causes serotonin syndrome, manifested by increased nervous excitability and upset of the gastrointestinal tract.
Many sources indicate the presence in P. foenisecii hallucinogenic substances (psilocin and psilocybin), but specially conducted research refutes this. It is likely that reports of psychotropic properties are related to the misidentification of this species. At the same time and in the same places, similar mushrooms containing hallucinogens often grow - Paneolus belted (Panaeolus subbalteatus), Paneolus olive (Panaeolus olivaceus), Paneolina chestnut-leaved (Panaeolina castaneifolia) .
Almost all types of paneolus (Panaeolus) and paneolin (Panaeolina) growing in grass and lawns are similar to each other.
- Maire R. Fungi Catalaunici: Contributions à l'étude de la Flore Mycologique de la Catalogne. // Treballs del Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona, 1933, Vol. XV (Série Botànica). - P. 109.
- Gerhardt E. Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). / Bibliotheca Botanica H. 147. - Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller), 1996. - 149 p. - P. 108.
- Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F. Fungi of Switzerland. A contribution to the knowledge of the fungal flora of Switzerland. Vol 4. Agarics. 2nd part. Entolomataceae, Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae, Bolbitiaceae, Strophariaceae. - Lucerne: Verlag Mykologia, 1995 .-- 368 p. - P. 258. [As Panaeolus foenisecii]
- Stijve T., Hischenhuber C., Ashley D. Occurrence of 5-Hydroxylated Indole Derivatives in Panaeolina foenisecii (Fries) Kuehner from Various Origin. // Zeitschrift für Mykologie. - 1984. - V. 50 (2). - P. 361–368.
- Allen J. W., Merlin M. D. Observations Regarding the SuspectedPsychoactive Properties of Panaeolina foenisecii Maire. // Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness. - 1992. - V. 1. - P. 99-115.
Link to this page for prints
Hay dung - lat.Panaeolus foenisecii
In a different way, this fungus is called Paneolus hay, Paneolus hay or Paneolus odorous.
Paneolina hay grows a medium-sized cap, the diameter of which reaches 0.8-3 cm, height - 0.8-1.6 cm. Young specimens are born with hemispherical hats, which subsequently turn into wide cones, bells or half-open umbrellas. Paneolus' caps are not flat.
The hat surface is covered with a delicate skin, grooved in damp weather and shiny and dry in drought: then tiny flat scales are clearly visible on it.
The peel, moistened by the rain, is painted in a red-brown shade, dried by the sun - in a pale brown or yellow-beige tone, with light zones giving the mushroom an elegant look.
The hat is filled with a taut brownish, pleasantly smelling pulp.
The hat bottom is formed by sparse loose plates of a pale brown or cream color in young dung beetles, and more brown in mature mushrooms. When the mushroom ripens, the lamellar bottom is covered with black spore dots.
Paneolus hay reproduces by dark brown warty spores that mature in black spore powder.
The dung beetle grows straight and even, sometimes slightly flat, with a stem of medium length, reaching 2-8 cm in height and 0.3-0.4 cm in thickness. It does not fill with pulp, does not have a ringlet and is colored yellowish - reddish in fine weather, and red - brown in wet weather.
The color of the leg is always paler than the hat color, especially at the top, although it is similar to it. To the bottom, the leg is darker, brown in tone.
Hay dung beetle - Latin Panaeolus foenisecii
Paneolina hay prefers not the manure of wild and domestic ungulates, and not hay, but the grassy soil rich in nitrogen. She chooses fields, meadows, river valleys, lawns and pastures covered with dense grass for growth. The fungus is widespread throughout the planet, but is more common in European countries.
Fruiting rarely occurs singly: most often the mushroom "gathers" in large families and often grows together with its legs. It begins bearing fruit in the spring and ends in early October, but peaks in September-October.
Despite the pleasant smelling flesh of Hay Dung, it is not suitable for culinary purposes. Containing a considerable amount of psilocybin, it has hallucinogenic properties.
When Paneolus hay is eaten, psilocybin, reaching the intestines, is converted into a less toxic substance, psilocin, which causes mild to moderate auditory and visual hallucinations.
The action of the hallucinogen has either a positive or negative effect on the psyche. After 20 minutes after eating mushrooms, a person falls into a state of euphoria or rampage. Many have trembling legs and arms, dizziness, attacks of terror and paranoia.
If you use Paneolina haymaking on a regular basis, severe damage is inflicted on the psyche and health, sometimes irreparable. The digestive organs, kidneys and heart muscle are severely affected by it. This dung beetle does not cause physical addiction, but people often get hooked on it mentally, remembering pleasant sensations.
Similar species and differences from hay paneolus
Hay dung resembles the following inedible and toxic mushrooms:
- Paneolus dung... Unlike hay paneolus, it has a black lamellar bottom and smooth spores.
- Paneolus moth... It differs in a larger hat (it is 1 cm larger in diameter) and the color of the hat surface: the moth analog has a dark gray or brown - gray skin.
What are psilocybin mushrooms?
Psilocybin mushrooms are inedible mushrooms that contain 2 main alkaloids - psilocin and psilocybin. Psilocybin is broken down into the intestines and converted to psilocin, which is considered half the toxicity. Hallucinogenic mushrooms are scattered throughout the world, but most of them grow in America.
Scientists are still arguing about whether it is worth classifying psilocin-containing fruits as poisonous. Although alkaloids are extremely toxic, their lethal dose is very high, and it is rather difficult to obtain it from the use of "mushrooms". However, such products may contain other dangerous toxins, so today official medicine recognizes them as poisonous.
The main dose of hallucinogenic poison in such mushrooms is concentrated in the stem, a small percentage in the cap.
There are several fungal genera in the world that contain psilocin:
- psilocybe (about 150 species are known, more than 115 act as drugs),
- fiber (psilocin contains 5 species, 4 of them are deadly poisonous),
- hymnopil (14 hallucinogenic species),
Photo of life-threatening mushrooms
Influence on the body
The effect of psilocybin mushrooms has been studied in great detail, in the scientific literature you can find detailed descriptions of people who have experienced the "mushroom effect" on themselves. But the effect of mushroom hallucinogens on the brain for a long time remained only an area for scientific theories and assumptions.
It is reliably known that psilocin, getting into the intestines, and then into the blood, excites the receptors of the hormone of joy - serotonin.
Therefore, after use, there is a feeling of euphoria, pleasant emotions, visual images and other narcotic effects. The action of many modern drugs is based on the same principle.
Recent research at Imperial College London has provided a more detailed understanding of the effects of psilocin on the human body.
When it enters the bloodstream, the alkaloid immediately rushes to the brain and deliberately affects neurons in 3 areas of the brain, causing irreparable harm:
- anterior cingulate gyrus,
- the posterior part of the cingulate gyrus,
- medial frontal zone (MPZ).
The posterior part of the cingulate gyrus and MPZ is a very special part of the brain, which is always in a state of active work. All metabolic processes in this corner of consciousness proceed 20% faster than in the rest of the brain. Even when a person is resting, completely relaxed, not thinking or worrying about anything, this site continues to process information. Here, all news streams are combined into a single whole, forming a unique picture of the world inherent in this particular person.
After exposure to psilocin, neurons in this brain region are practically turned off, all mental and metabolic processes are suspended. The picture of the world is changing dramatically - there is a powerful shift in reality (hallucinations, etc.).
Scientists compare the effects of hallucinogenic mushrooms with the drug LSD. The main difference is only in the duration (LSD “works” for almost twice as long).
But psilocybin mushrooms have one feature - they affect each person in their own way. Everyone can have different symptoms, hallucinations, trip time (psychedelic attack). Observations have shown that if a person ate mushrooms in a good mood, then visions and emotions are colored in positive tones.
The first unusual sensations begin after 15-20 minutes of eating magic mushrooms on an empty stomach. At first, a person is confused, dizziness, trembling of hands and feet, fear, paranoia and other phenomena resembling signs of schizophrenia may begin. Typical narcotic symptoms soon appear.
Researcher Carl Graham identified 5 levels of consciousness alteration after consuming psilocybin mushrooms:
- There are minor disorders of short-term memory, sensitivity to music, color perception is exacerbated.
- The surrounding objects seem to come to life, begin to breathe, move, the colors acquire saturation and depth. Colored circles and bright patterns float before closed eyes. The feeling of time changes greatly - it becomes slow and stringy.
- Separate hallucinations appear, real objects can merge with them. Kaleidoscopic patterns in front of closed eyes float in 3D. The perception of time is distorted even more - time can freeze at one point.
- A person completely loses a sense of time, and with it - his own "I". There is a feeling as if the fragments of the personality pass into the surrounding objects, trying to revive them. Hallucinations of transformation begin.
- Contact with reality disappears completely.A person feels himself spilled in time, space, the Absolute. The familiar world disappears, only visions exist.