Bird Families

Swift (Apodiformes)

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All species of the subfamily Harmolitinae, known in the Russian entomological literature under the name "isosomes" are phytophages. About 50 species of this subfamily are known in Ukraine and Western Europe. Isozome larvae live in the stems of cultivated and wild-growing cereals.
Wingless isosome - Philachyra aptera Portsch. Central and southern stripes of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, in Ukraine, mainly in the south (Kherson, Donetsk regions). North America (USA, Canada). Not known in Western Europe. Damages wheat.
Description. Imagoes of different generations are morphologically very different. The spring generation is wingless, and the summer generation is winged. Body of wingless females 2.4-3.0 mm long, slender, brown, often with lighter spots on the anterior angles of the pronotum, covered with sparse, long, white hairs. Outwardly, insects resemble ants.
Winged females are larger (4-4.5 mm), differ from the wingless form in a denser and wider chest and a wider abdomen. The wings are well developed. Males are unknown.
Larva 2-3 mm, milky white, legless, worm-like. Pupa is dark brown.
Lifestyle. Females of the spring wingless generation appear early (April) and lay eggs on very young shoots of wheat. The hatched larva destroys the growth point, and the entire stem dies. The larva pupates in May; adult insects of the summer generation appear in late May - early June. The females of the summer generation lay eggs in wheat stalks above the node, where the hatching larva feeds. Pupates in autumn (end of August - September). The pupa hibernates inside the stems (straws). The damage is mainly caused by the larvae of the first generation, which destroy the growth point of the stem. Larvae of the second generation do not bring any noticeable harm to the plant.
Wheat gallic isosome - Tetramesa tritici Fitch. The central and southern stripes of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, in Ukraine are everywhere, but the highest harmfulness was noted in the southern steppe regions (Kherson region). North America. Damages wheat.
Description. The body is 3-4 mm, slender, elongated with a convex chest, in females with an elongated, pointed abdomen, the length of which is almost equal to the length of the head with the chest together, in the male the abdomen is round. The color is black, the pronotum has small yellow spots, the legs are somewhat lighter in color than the body. The head and thorax are shining with a small folded sculpture, the abdomen is smooth. The wings are colorless, the veins are light yellow. The larva is white, worm-like. Pupa is dark brown.
Lifestyle. Adult insects fly in May - early June. The female lays eggs in the knot of the wheat stalk, less often at the knot itself. The stem at the site of damage gradually swells, deforms and turns into a large (up to 3 cm) round gall. The gall cavity is filled with cells, each of which feeds on one larva. By the time the wheat ripens, the larva has completed development and remains in the straw for the rest of the summer, autumn and winter. Larvae pupate in spring with the onset of stable warm weather. The pupal stage lasts 14-20 days.
Rye gall isosome - Tetramesa rossica Rim.-Kors. The middle and southern zones of the European part of Russia, in Ukraine everywhere, but prevails in the southern regions. Not known in Western Europe. Damages rye.
Description. The body is rather wide, dense, 2.5-3.5 mm, the chest is not convex, in the female the abdomen is slightly longer than the head with the chest, in the male it is rounded. The color is black, the pronotum has transverse yellow spots at the anterior corners, the legs are somewhat lighter in color than the body. The wings are transparent, the veins are light yellow. The head and thorax are slightly shining with a uniform very fine wrinkled sculpture, the abdomen is smooth and shiny.The larva is 2-3 mm, worm-like, milky white. The pupa is brown.

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Reproduction

Dianema striped tails reach sexual maturity by 1.5 years, sometimes by 1 year.

Dianema urostriates become sexually mature in a year.

The males are engaged in the construction of the nest. In nature, they choose broad-leaved coastal plants for these purposes, and build a nest of foam on their underside. In an aquarium, this role is successfully performed by an inverted plastic plate.

Females of Dianem urostriates lay on average up to 500 eggs. After spawning, you need to transplant the eggs into another aquarium, because they require different conditions of detention than adults. Another significant reason for the separation of eggs into another vessel is that sometimes the male can start eating it.

Strip-tailed dianems are aquarium fish.

In an aquarium with babies, you need to maintain a constant temperature of 24 ° C. The following indicators are also important: pH 7.0, dKH less than 2 ° and dGH 8-10 °. The water should be slightly tinted with methylene blue.

After five days, the fry hatch from the eggs. If you notice that someone is having trouble getting through the shell, you can help by lightly hitting it with a goose or any other feather. Initially, the fry should be fed with brine shrimp and rotifers.

Dianems prefer special food. consisting of small crustaceans.

The still fragile organism of juveniles is too sensitive to various changes in the environment. Therefore, it is important to ensure that there is no excess of protein substances in the water and that the temperature is kept constant. It is best to replace ½ of the aquarium water with clean water as often as possible. It will also be useful to filter it through activated carbon. Over time, juveniles will no longer react so sharply to changes in their environment.

Content

For a comfortable stay of Dianem urostriats in the aquarium, they need places with twilight. To create them, you can use all kinds of shelters and plants.

Striped Dianems are surprisingly peaceful.

The water temperature should be maintained at 20-28 ° C, pH 6-7.2, and the hardness (dH) should be around 5-20 °.

Usually representatives of Dianem urostriates are kept in groups. They get along well with other fish, due to their calm disposition. The main thing is to make sure that the aquarium is spacious enough for everyone.

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