Bird Families

Long-tailed Whistler Larva / Lalage leucopyga

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Larvae (lat. Campephagidae) is a family of small or medium-sized songbirds that live mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. In total, there are approximately 85 species of larvae-eaters, divided into 8-9 genera. Until recently, the genus of forest larvae (Tephrodornis) was often ranked in the family, but it is probably closer to the forest shrike (Prionopidae) or to the family Malaconotidae. Another monotypic genus of black-breasted larvae (Chlamydochaera) is currently assigned to the thrush family (Turdidae). Some birds in this family are in danger of extinction, including the species Coracina bicolor, Coracina newtoni and Pericrocotus igneus.

Description

Small or medium-sized birds 13-35 cm long and weighing from 6 to 180 g. The beak is wide at the base, slightly curved downward, with teeth, well adapted for catching insects in the air. There are hard, bristly feathers around the nasal openings. The wings are rather long, tapering at the tip. The tail is of medium length, rounded or stepped. Back feathers and rump feathers in most species have a rigid, flattened shaft and a soft and thin end, which allows birds to raise them on end in case of approaching danger. Plumage varies greatly in different species: from nondescript (as in most shrike larvae, in particular in the Mauritian shrike larvae (Coracina typica)) to brightly colored (for example, in long-tailed larvae - in particular, in the species Pericrocotus igneus). As a rule, the plumage of female larvae is calmer than that of males.

Spread

Distributed in the tropical and subtropical zones of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and Australia. On the territory of the Russian Federation, one species is found - the gray larvae (Pteropodocys divaricatus), which lives in deciduous and mixed forests of the Amur Region and in the south of Primorsky Territory. The range of genera of forest, flycatchers and just larvaeaters is mostly limited to the countries of South and Southeast Asia. Representatives of island larvae live in Australia.

Habitats

In the overwhelming case, they live in trees, often in the upper tier of the forest, near the leaf canopy. Many species prefer forest edges. About 11 species prefer more open spaces. Previously, it was believed that the only species that spends most of its time on earth is the Australian forest larvae (Pteropodocys maxima), but this bird is now considered to belong to a different family. It is found in swampy, humid tropical or arid xerophytic forests, in mangroves, in thickets of shrubs or savannas. Most species are sedentary and tied to a certain territory. However, some species, especially those found in Africa and Australia, migrate over short distances. Three species of larvae from Central and East Asia are migratory birds: for example, the gray larvae (Pericrocotus divaricatus) overwinters in the Philippines.

Behavior and reproduction

They are found alone, in pairs, or in flocks of the same sex (larvaeaters). Coracina lineata spends the night in groups. The breeding period of larvaeaters has not been sufficiently studied to date, but it has been noticed that most species, with the exception of Lalage tricolor, breed either in the rainy season or immediately after its end. Monogamous, reproduce in pairs (not colonies). The nest in most birds is built by both the male and the female, on a horizontal or forked branch, and is a small, shallow cup-shaped formation of dry branches of trees, bark, moss, lichen, grass and cobwebs, near which it can often be found. Clutch consists of 1-5 (most often 2-3) eggs. In most species, only the female incubates. The incubation period is 14-25 days. Both parents take care of the chicks.Chicks leave the nest in 13-24 days.

Food

They feed mainly on insects and other arthropods, including caterpillars (hence the name). Many species also consume the seeds and fruits of plants: for example, the white-browed larvae (Lalage leucomela) and the Coracina lineata species love figs. In search of food, they examine the crowns of trees and shrubs, foliage, less often trunks or large branches. They often catch insects on the fly, on occasion they find them on the ground.

Description

This subspecies was similar to other subspecies of the long-tailed whistler larvae, although it was slightly larger - 17-18 cm long. It also had an ocher tint of the upper tail, more white at the end of the lateral tail feathers, and some other details.

Habitat

The birds inhabited the rainforest, in contrast to the rest of the subspecies, which prefer open spaces with free standing trees.

Food

For the Norfolk subspecies, only feeding on insects (both terrestrial and flying) was noted, which they looked out for, sitting on some kind of elevation. Other subspecies besides insects also feed on small fruits.

Reproduction

Breeding was recorded from September to February. Shallow bowl-shaped nests were made of lichens, mosses and fibrous roots and lined with thinner material. The clutch contained two eggs of a pale green color with brown spots. It was argued that the birds make another clutch after heavy rains.

Disappearing

The birds were last seen in 1942. Due to their contrasting black and white coloring, they were very noticeable, and even a year before extinction they were found in large numbers, although the exact size of the population has not been estimated. The reason for the extinction was probably the extermination of birds by the black rats that appeared on the island in the 1940s, as well as the destruction of a large area of ​​subtropical rainforest for the construction of the airport at about the same time [> https: ╱╱en.wikipedia.org╱ wiki╱Norfolk_Island_Airport [en].

Instances of these birds are kept in the museums of Leiden, Vienna, Tring and in the collection of H. L. White in Melbourne.

Long-tailed whistler larvae

The long-tailed whistler larvae, or light-nosed larvaeater, is a species of passerine birds from the larvae family. A small bird the size of a sparrow, with a contrasting black and white plumage, whose life is associated with trees. It feeds on insects and small fruits.

There are five subspecies that are common on the islands of Melanesia. The sixth, nominative subspecies, which lived on Norfolk Island, is now considered extinct.

2. Biology

Birds inhabit forest edges and open spaces with individual tall trees and bushes, on the branches of which they feed. Also found on plantations and gardens.

They feed on insects and small fruits.

Usually kept in pairs or small groups. Territorial, they aggressively defend their territory, especially during breeding. Nests are arranged on a branch of a tree at a high height of 6 - 9 m, they are made of stems of herbs and plant fibers. There are two eggs in the clutch. The breeding season is not exactly known, various sources indicate the months from August to February.

3. Taxonomy

The species was first described by John Gould in 1838 as Symmorphus leucopygus from Norfolk Island, erroneously referred to as "New South Wales" in the original description.

Subsequently, the species was transferred to the genus of whistler larvae Lalage from the larvae family Campephagidae.

According to molecular genetic studies, the species belongs to a clade of "eastern" whistler larvae see cladogram. Its closest relatives are the Indonesian Lalage sueurii and the Australian Lalage tricolor, their ancestors diverged about two million years ago:

4. Classification and distribution

There are six subspecies, one of which is extinct. Representatives of the subspecies differ in size, shade of upper tail and back in females, as well as the presence or absence of a white stripe above the eye.

List of subspecies, their ranges and distinctive features:

  • Lalage leucopyga deficiens Mayr & Ripley, 1941 - inhabits northern Vanuatu, Torres and Banks islands. It differs from the previous one in the absence of a white stripe above the eye.
  • Lalage leucopyga montrosieri J. Verreaux & Des Murs, 1860 - lives in New Caledonia. Its size is smaller than that of the nominative, uppertail with a gray tint.
  • Lalage leucopyga affinis Tristram, 1879 - lives on the island of San Cristobal Solomon Islands. Uppertail is pure white. The white tail rim is very narrow. The female is pale brown on top, much paler than that of other subspecies.
  • Lalage leucopyga albiloris Mayr & Ripley, 1941 - inhabits the center and north of Vanuatu, from Efate Island to Espiritu Santo. The size is smaller than the previous one. It is distinguished by a gray uppertail, a white bridle and a white stripe above the eye.
  • Nominal subspecies Lalage leucopyga Gould, 1838 - lived on Norfolk Island, now extinct for the last time the birds were seen in 1942.
  • Lalage leucopyga simillima Sarasin, 1913 - inhabits southern Vanuatu and the Loyote Islands. Its size is even smaller, the tail is shorter and less white at the end. The brown feathers of females are much darker than that of the nominative subspecies, almost black.

5. Conservation status

The species has been designated a Least Concern LC by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Although the exact size of the population is unknown, the birds are considered fairly common in their habitats, and there is no evidence of declining numbers.

Article source:

Bird lovers: posts from the VKontakte community.

The short-billed long-tailed larvae Pericrocotus brevirostris is a representative of the Tristramov long-tailed starling. 1 Whistler crow. 2. Download pdf Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Long-tailed owl 14. Yellow 15. White-backed woodpecker 16. Larvae 31. Blue nightingale 32. Whistler nightingale 33. White-chinned thrush 34. Pale.

00009616.pdf FSC Biodiversity FEB RAS.

Owls, Strigiformes, Owls, Strigidae, Long-tailed Owl, Strix Passeriformes, Larvae, Campephagidae, Gray Larva Passeriformes, Flycatchers, Muscicapidae, Nightingale Whistler, Luscinia sibilans. Next Login Settings. Inventory of vertebrates of the Irkutsk region is not. Grub-eater, or gray grub-eater - lat. Luscinia akahige Erithacus akahige Whistler Nightingale - lat. Family Long-tailed tits - lat.

Indonesia Birds of the Yaroslavl region.

Larvaeater. a songbird from a sviyag, a whistler bird from the order of anseriformes, a family of duck, a genus of river ducks, a long-tailed bird. bird. RUSSIAN STATE SOCIAL. Larvae or gray larvae Pteropodocys divaricatus. Grub-eater, or Opolovnik, or long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus. Opolovnik.

Russian and English names of birds: systematic experience.

Whistler larvae Lalage sueurii and scaly-chested finches Lonchura punctulata. In the low bushes, striped-winged princes sometimes flickered. Express issue 2013 Russian Ornithological Journal. Phaenicophaeus tristis - Long-tailed Malcoa. C. U Pericrocotus ethologus - Long-tailed larvae. R Pachycephala cinerea - Gray whistler. List of bird species of the Khankaisky reserve and its protection. Chok, long-tailed ground squirrel, as well as Siberian and widespread species Siberian roe deer, several species of voles, chipmunk, brown. Birds Exclusive souvenirs. Filipino Whistler 328. Filipino catkins Nicobar long-tailed necklace parrot 138 Himalayan fire larvae 264. Spatial heterogeneity of the summer population of birds. 447 Long-tailed Owl Strix uralensis. Ural Owl. R. R. B? W. R Forest Wagtail. BM. 546 Gray larvaeater 606 Whistler nightingale. Luscinia sibilans.

Birds with the letter L.

Sumatran long-tailed larvae Sunda Minivet Timor whistler Fawn breasted Whistler Pachycephala orpheus. Rare and endangered species. 147 Phaenicophaeus tristis Long-tailed Malcoa C U C R Long-tailed larvae Pericrocotus flammeus Fire larvae Family Whistlers Pachycephallidae Pachycephala cinerea Gray whistler. And l G. J Electronic library of abstracts and. Long-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus undulatus. Beringian ground squirrel Long-tailed hamster, Cricetulus longicaudatus Grub-eater, Pericrocotus divaricatus. Golden-breasted Nightingale Whistler, Luscinia sibilans. Nightingale. Fire-bellied long-tailed larvae 494. Tailed skuas, long-tailed skuas, Arctic terns, white-capped whistlers, white-capped buntings, Naumann's thrush, olive thrush, Siberian Pericrocotus divaricatus Raffles, 1822 oe Gray larvae

Popular encyclopedia of flora and fauna BioDat.

Long-tailed Skua - Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, 1819 - Long tailed Jaeger. FAMILY Gray larvaeater - Pericrocotus divaricatus Raffles, 1822 - Ashy Minivet Genus Nightingale whistler - Pseudaedon Buturlin, 1910. An overview of the bird fauna of the national park biota and environment. Long-tailed Owl, Ural Owl. Strix uralensis Gray larvaeater, larvaeater. Pericrocotus Whistler nightingale, Far Eastern nightingale.

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Black-red long-tailed larvae Pericrocotus ethologus. 2009 08 26 White-winged whistler larvae Lalage sueurii. 2009 08 26. Birds of Russia Red Data Book of Russia. Ural owl Strix uralensis Pallas, 1771. 95. Great gray owl Strix Larvae Pericrocotus divaricatus Raffles, 1822. 132. Brown dipper Cinclus Whistler nightingale Luscinia sibilans Swinhoe, 1863. 162. Blue-tailed owl. STATE INVENTORY OF OBJECTS OF THE ANIMAL WORLD. Whistler nightingale, ruby-necked nightingale, gray larvaeater, cuckoo Long-tailed bullfinches are rare, but they behave.

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Long-tailed bullfinch, 1, 2, 0. Magpie, 1, 5 Long-tailed bullfinch, 11, 4, 0 b - in valleys, Pale-footed warbler, nightingales - whistler and blue White-backed woodpecker, larvaeater in places with eastern titmouse. List of birds of the Daursky reserve Daursky reserve. Sarawak Whistler, Red-headed Pitta, one occasional Pericrocotus solaris gray-necked long-tailed larvae. List of birds of Brunei with comments. Aix galericulata, Chinese greenfinch Chloris sinica, gray larva Peri crocotus long-tailed Aegithalos caudatus titmouse and other species. wei whistler L. sibilans, Siberian Turdus sibiricus, red-throated T. ruficollis. Taxonomic list of Russian Outness birds. Kislenko et al., 1990. Gray larvae Pericrocotus Long-tailed skua S. lon gicaudus. Nightingale whistler L. sibilans. Dawn.

Larvae Campephagidae LifeCatalog.

7 whistler larvae, white-browed. 11 whistler larvae, long-tailed RUS long-tailed whistler larvae m, light-nosed larvae m. Complete list of Siberian bird species. Birds of Siberia. Long-tailed Skua - S. longicaudus. Vieillot, 1819 Gray larvae - Pericrocotus Whistler nightingale - L. sibilans Swinhoe. Birds classification and types of birds, care, feeding, photos of birds. Fire-bellied long-tailed larvaeater 494. Prokhor October 30, 2011 21:19. copyright: Prokhor. Additional Information. age. Book Birds of Asia White City. The deaf cuckoo, chiffchaff warbler, whistler nightingale coexist with representatives of the scoop, broad-winged cuckoo and gray larvae. the goshawk and the long-tailed owl live near the southern ones.

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Black: Black African grub-eater - Campephaga sulphurata Four-row: Four-row whistler - Leptodactylus martinezi. BIRDS OF NORTHERN EURASIA Birds fauna of Northern Eurasia. Birds of Russia Middle skuas Long-tailed skuas Arctic skuas Sicklebeak Garshnep Mountain snipe Asiatic snipe.

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236. Long-tailed skua Stercorarius longicaudus 359. Gray larvae Pericrocotus divaricatus Whistler nightingale Luscinia sibilans 475. Birds of Asia Leather bound gift books. Grub Eater, Browed Jungle Flycatcher, Sarawak Whistler, Pericrocotus flammeus Fire-bellied long-tailed grubber Pericrocotus. New Zealand Grebe Knowledge Map. Owls, Strigiformes, Owls, Strigidae, Long-tailed Owl, Strix Passeriformes, Larvae, Campephagidae, Gray Larva Passeriformes, Flycatchers, Muscicapidae, Nightingale Whistler, Luscinia sibilans. Download. Larvae Black-red long-tailed Pericrocotus ethologus larvae Whistler White-winged Lalage sueurii loddighezia Rocket-tailed. Norsk protected area of ​​Russia. Gray larvae Pericrocotus divaricatus Raffles, 1822 Blue nightingale Larvivora cyane Pallas, 1776 Whistler nightingale Larvivora The long-tailed shrike differs from the shrikes of the group of shrikes more.

Flat-footed whistler from Russian to all languages.

Long-tailed Owl - Ural Owl. Strix uralensis Pallas Larvae - Ashy Minivet. Pericrocotus Whistler Nightingale - Swinhoes Robin. Luscinia sibilans. The state of specially protected natural areas of the distant. Gray Larvae Pericrocotus divaricatus 298. Wren Troglodytes Whistler Nightingale Luscinia sibilans 370. Bluetail Tarsiger Long-tailed Aegithalos caudatus tit 388. Crowned pendulum. Long-tailed shrike Lanius schach Linnaeus, 1758. Spotted crickets, whistler nightingale and other birds Yamachina, Yamada, Japanese accentor, Daurian starling, gray larvaeater, long-tailed. The fauna of birds of the countries of Northern Eurasia within the borders of the former USSR. The long-tailed tit dominates, 20 pairs per sq. km. these are the yellow-backed flycatcher, light-headed warbler, larvaeater, sowing nightingale whistler.

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Introduction

Larvae (lat. Campephagidae ) Is a family of small or medium-sized songbirds that live mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. In total, there are approximately 85 species of larvae-eaters, divided into 8-9 genera. Until recently, the genus of forest larvae (Tephrodornis), but it is probably closer to the forest shrike (Prionopidae) or to the family Malaconotidae... Another monotypic genus of black-breasted larvae (Chlamydochaera) is currently assigned to the thrush family (Turdidae). Some of the birds in this family are at risk of extinction, including the species Coracina bicolor, Coracina newtoni and Pericrocotus igneus.

1.2. Spread

Distributed in the tropical and subtropical zones of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and Australia. On the territory of the Russian Federation, one species is found - the gray larvaeater (Pteropodocys divaricatus), living in deciduous and mixed forests of the Amur Region and in the south of Primorsky Territory. The range of genera of forest, flycatchers and just larvaeaters is mostly limited to the countries of South and Southeast Asia. Representatives of island larvae live in Australia.

1.3. Habitats

In the overwhelming case, they live in trees, often in the upper tier of the forest, near the leaf canopy. Many species prefer forest edges. About 11 species prefer more open spaces. Previously, it was believed that the only species that spends most of its time on earth is the Australian forest larvaeater (Pteropodocys maxima), but this bird is currently regarded as belonging to a different family. It is found in swampy, humid tropical or arid xerophytic forests, in mangroves, in thickets of shrubs or savannas. Most species are sedentary and tied to a certain territory. However, some species, especially those found in Africa and Australia, migrate over short distances. Three species of larvae from Central and East Asia are migratory birds: for example, the gray larvae (Pericrocotus divaricatus) winters in the Philippines.

1.4. Behavior and reproduction

They are found alone, in pairs, or in flocks of the same sex (larvaeaters). Coracina lineata spends the night in groups. The breeding period of larvaeaters has not been sufficiently studied to date, but it has been noticed that most species, with the exception of Lalage tricolor, breed either in the rainy season or immediately after its end. Monogamous, reproduce in pairs (not colonies). The nest in most birds is built by both the male and the female, on a horizontal or forked branch, and is a small, shallow cup-shaped formation of dry branches of trees, bark, moss, lichen, grass and cobwebs, near which it can often be found. Clutch consists of 1-5 (most often 2-3) eggs. In most species, only the female incubates. The incubation period is 14-25 days. Both parents take care of the chicks. Chicks leave the nest in 13-24 days.

2. Genera and species

  • African larvae ( Campephaga )
    • Black African larvaeater ( Campephaga flava )
    • Blue-black African larvaeater ( Campephaga petiti )
    • Red-shouldered African larvaeater ( Campephaga phoenicea )
    • Purple-throated African larvaeater ( Campephaga quiscalina )
    • Campephaga sulphurata
  • Orange Grub Eaters ( Campochaera )
    • Orange Larvaeater ( Campochaera sloetii )
  • Shrike larvae ( Coracina )
    • Celebesian Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina abbotti )
    • Mountain Shrike Larvae ( Coracina analis )
    • Moluccan shrike grub-eater ( Coracina atriceps )
    • Blue Shrike Larvae ( Coracina azurea )
    • Bicolor shrike larvae ( Coracina bicolor )
    • Red-spotted shrike larvae ( Coracina boyeri )
    • Thick-billed shrike larvae ( Coracina caeruleogrisea )
    • Forest Shrike Larvae ( Coracina caesia )
    • Melanesian Shrike Larvae ( Coracina caledonica )
    • Coracina ceramensis
    • Madagascar shrike larvae ( Coracina cinerea )
    • Filipino shrike larvae ( Coracina caerulescens )
    • Coracina dispar
    • Striped shrike larvae ( Coracina dohertyi )
    • Dwarf shrike larvae ( Coracina fimbriata )
    • Island Shrike Larvae ( Coracina fortis )
    • Silvery Shrike Grubber ( Coracina graueri )
    • Cicadic Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina holopolia )
    • Coracina incerta
    • Coracina ingens
    • Coracina javensis
    • Black-faced Shrike Larvae ( Coracina larvata )
    • White-lumbar shrike larvae ( Coracina leucopygia )
    • Yellow-eyed shrike larvae ( Coracina lineata )
    • Long-tailed shrike larvae ( Coracina longicauda )
    • Coracina macei
    • Coracina maxima
    • Sharp-tailed shrike larvae ( Coracina mcgregori )
    • Black-headed Shrike Grub-Eater ( Coracina melanoptera )
    • Coracina melas
    • Funeral shrike larvaeater ( Coracina melaschistos )
    • Coracina mindanensis
    • Black-bellied Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina montana )
    • Dark-shouldered shrike grub-eater ( Coracina morio )
    • Reunion Shrike Grubber ( Coracina newtoni )
    • Masked Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina novaehollandiae )
    • Coracina ostenta
    • White-winged shrike larvae ( Coracina papuensis )
    • Tiny Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina parvula )
    • White-chested Shrike Larvae ( Coracina pectoralis )
    • Coracina personata
    • Garden shrike larvaeater ( Coracina polioptera )
    • Coracina salomonis
    • Slate shrike larvae ( Coracina schistacea )
    • Dark Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina schisticeps )
    • Striped shrike larvae ( Coracina striata )
    • Coracina sula
    • Sunda Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina temminckii )
    • Slender-billed shrike larvae ( Coracina tenuirostris )
    • Mauritian shrike grub-eater ( Coracina typica )
  • Flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus )
    • Black-winged flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus hirundinaceus )
    • Brown-backed flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus picatus )
  • Whistler larvae ( Lalage )
    • Black-browed Whistler Larvae ( Lalage atrovirens )
    • Red-bellied Whistler Larvae ( Lalage aurea )
    • White-browed Whistler Larvae ( Lalage leucomela )
    • Long-tailed whistler larvae ( Lalage leucopyga )
    • Spotted Whistler Grub ( Lalage maculosa )
    • Filipino whistler larvae ( Lalage melanoleuca )
    • White-fronted whistler larvae ( Lalage nigra )
    • Brown-backed whistler larvae ( Lalage sharpei )
    • White-winged Whistler Larvae
    • Lalage tricolor
  • Lobotos
    • Lobotos lobatus
    • Lobotos oriolinus
  • Long-tailed larvae ( Pericrocotus )
    • Short-billed long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus brevirostris )
    • Pericrocotus cantonensis
    • Dwarf long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus cinnamomeus )
    • Gray larvaeater ( Pericrocotus divaricatus )
    • White-bellied long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus erythropygius )
    • Black-red long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus ethologus )
    • Fire-bellied long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus flammeus )
    • Pericrocotus igneus
    • Sumbawan long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus lansbergei )
    • Sumatran long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus miniatus )
    • Pink long-tailed larvae ( Pericrocotus roseus )
    • Gray-throated long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus solaris )
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This abstract is based on an article from the Russian Wikipedia. Synchronization completed 07/17/11 00:54:21 AM
Categories: Animals alphabetically, Bird families, Larvaeidae.
Text available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license.

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