Bird Families

Ficedula albicollis)


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  • Birds starting with the letter O
Latin name:Otus bakkamoena
English name:To be specified
A type:Chordates
Squad:To be specified
Family:To be specified
Genus:To be clarified
Body length:23-27 cm
Wing length:To be clarified
Wingspan:60-66 cm
Weight:200 g
  • 1 Description of the bird
    • 1.1 Body
    • 1.2 Plumage
    • 1.3 Plumage of chicks
  • 2 What eats
  • 3 Bird distribution
  • 4 Common types of collar scoops
  • 5 Male and female: the main differences
  • 6 Reproduction
    • 6.1 Puberty
    • 6.2 The mating season
    • 6.3 Socket
    • 6.4 Hatching period
    • 6.5 Clutch of eggs
    • 6.6 Chicks
    • 6.7 Juveniles
  • 7 Voice
  • 8 Interesting facts

Description of the bird

The collar scoop is the largest of the scoops in Europe and Asia. The length of its body is from 23 to 27 cm, the wingspan is 60-66 cm. The plumage is buffy-brownish with dark and brown small cross-like streaks. The head is large, with long "ears" and a noticeable facial disc. The beak is large, but hidden under feathers and bristles.


Male and female in plumage color are the same. Their head and neck are dark brown with yellowish-buffy and dark brown streaks. The facial disc is well pronounced, gray in color with brown streaks, dark brown streaks are located on the sides, which form an open ring. Craw and neck whitish in the center. A light ocher "collar" is located on the back of the neck. The back is brownish, paler than the head and neck. The primary flight feathers are brownish-gray, with light spots on top, the inner webs are dark brown in color with a transverse pattern. The tail feathers are brown with dark streaks and stripes. The wings on the underside are light gray with a dark pattern. The breast and tummy are light, buffy with a dark pattern of stripes and streaks.

What eats

The main food of the collar moth is small rodents (voles, mice) and passerines. In summer, birds include beetles and other large insects that fly at night in their diet. In the cold season, moths often fly closer to settlements, where they hunt mice and rats in attics or behind the cladding of buildings.

During the nesting time, the collar moth feeds on an area with a radius of 300 to 400 m, during the rest of the year its hunting grounds expand to an area of ​​about 1 km2, but the boundaries remain constant.

The collar scoop hunts rodents from an ambush, tracking down prey and attacking it suddenly. In the darkest and even cloudy nights, the bird unmistakably hits the victim on the fly with its whole body, stuns, grabs in its claws and rises with it on a branch. There, the scoop butts up its prey, first of all tearing off its head from it. In summer, the bird occasionally hunts during the day. Sometimes it chases prey on the ground, and catches insects in the air.

Bird spread

The habitat of the collar moth covers the southern Primorye, Sakhalin and the islands of the Kuril archipelago. These birds live mainly in cedar-deciduous and floodplain forests, sometimes also in mixed and spruce-fir forests. Collared moths are mostly sedentary and make small migrations only in search of food.

Common types of collar scoops

For the collar scoop, several subspecies are distinguished, according to their main habitats:

  • Otus bakkamoena bakkamoena - a resident of South India and Sri Lanka,
  • Otus bakkamoena marathae - distributed from the center of India to the southwest of Bengal,
  • Otus bakkamoena gangeticus - lives in northwestern India,
  • Otus bakkamoena plumipes - subspecies breeds in the western Himalayas from Northern Pakistan to Nepal,
  • Otus bakkamoena deserticolor - found in the south of Pakistan, in Oman.

Male and female: the main differences

The collar moth is not characterized by sexual dimorphism, males and females are the same both in size and color of plumage.



Collared moths reach sexual maturity in the first year of life. They are monogamous birds.

Mating season

Males are the first to arrive at nesting sites and occupy an area of ​​about 1 km2 in the forest, where they begin to sing mating songs in order to attract females. In early spring, their cries can be heard both at night and during the day, and gradually subside only at the end of June. The male also chooses the nest and demonstrates it to the female.


The collar moth nests in natural holes of other birds or in nest boxes in dense forest areas near river banks. The bird does not build its nest, but lays eggs either on the bottom of the hollow, or on the litter that remained in it after the previous inhabitants.

Incubation period

The breeding period for this bird species is very long, from 1 to 1.5 months. The collar moth starts laying eggs, depending on weather conditions, from the second half of May to mid-June.

Clutch of eggs

In one clutch there are 4 to 9 eggs, more often 7, which the female lays with an interval of 1 to 3 days. The eggs are round or elliptical, white. Incubation begins with the first egg; exclusively the female is engaged in it. The male stays not far from the nest, at night he hunts and provides his spouse with food. The female flies to him to eat the prey and immediately returns to the nest. The incubation period lasts about 25 days.


Chicks hatch in turn, from late April to mid-July, depending on the timing of laying. The male continues to bring food, which the female feeds the offspring. In the second week of life, the chicks have clearly visible "ears", and the first feather plumage is fully developed. At the age of 35 days, the young bird already resembles an adult in both size and color of plumage.

Young growth

At the same time, the young stand on the wing. Older chicks are the first to leave the hollow, a few days later the younger ones follow them. After all the chicks have left, the brood wanders together for several weeks not far from the nest, and the parents continue to feed the young birds.

In August or September, broods break up, and young collar moths move on to an independent life.


In general, the collar moth is a silent bird, the voice of which can be heard mainly during the nesting period. Species invocation cry and mating songs of the bird sound the same, like a monotonous repetitive "hook-hook". The male makes such a sound 1-3 times per night during the incubation of eggs and feeding the chicks. With the same sound, the female notifies the chicks about her arrival with food.

The connecting cry of a male in a pair sounds like a quiet, repetitive whistle, with the help of which the male calls the female from the hollow. The female responds with a piercing whistle. To ask the male for food, the female emits a meowing sound “miaav”, and in the hollow moans “oh-oh-oh”.

Newborn chicks during feeding in the first days of life emit a chirping trill "qi-qi-qi", starting from the second day they switch to the sounds "tszit-tszyat" or "cirr-tsi-qi". Fledging chicks emit puffing or a sharp hiss.

Interesting Facts

  • The collar moth is a useful bird, as it destroys a large number of murine rodents and orthoptera. In order to increase the number of birds in nesting places, artificial nests and nest boxes are hung up, which birds willingly occupy and use as nests. In this way, the scoop is attracted to tree nurseries and gardens to combat rodents.
  • Collared moths are active only at night, and during the day they hide. They sleep, like other species of owls, in the daytime, ruffled, pulling their heads into their shoulders, and pressing their ears to their heads. Their eyes are closed at this time.
  • On cool days, the scoops become very fluffy and look like fur balls.

Collar scoop

30.08.2019, Posted in & nbsp

The collar scoop is one of the varieties of miniature owls. In size, it is much larger than its most common close relative, the scops owl, and is one of the largest scoops found in the European open spaces.


On average, the dimensions of a collar scoop are equivalent to a small jackdaw. The body length of this bird varies between 23-35 cm with a wingspan of up to 60-65 cm, and its weight reaches 200 grams. The color of its plumage is predominantly ocher-gray-brown, with a pronounced cruciform pattern of small dark and brown streaks on the back.

There is a white spot on the neck, similar to a collar, for which the collar scoop received its specific name. Against the background of the back, the head and neck are noticeably lighter. The abdomen is also light, but with brown specks and dark streaks. In total, there are 5 subspecies of collar moths, which are distinguished not by external differences, but by regions of habitat.

Unlike a number of other scoops, this bird species has one-third feathered toes. The head is large, with well-visible long feather "ears" and a pronounced facial disc.

The eyes are usually yellow, less often - almost orange in color, like those of owls. The beak of the collar moth is large and massive, almost completely covered in numerous bristles (it is with their help that the bird studies its prey).


Most often, collar moths choose cedar and floodplain forests as nesting places, less often spruce and mixed forests, and in the vastness of Russia they can nest on the slopes of hills. These scoops are distributed over the vast expanses of East and South Asia, where they are found in many countries, from Japan and Sri Lanka to the Philippines.

Indian collar scoop

In Russia, they live exclusively in the Far Eastern expanses, including the south of Primorye, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. But for the winter they usually migrate to China. The exception is the moths living in the Sakhalin expanses, which fly to Kunashir for wintering, where they try to stay closer to people's dwellings.

Lifestyle and hunting

The majority of birds of this genus are sedentary. They can change their habitats only if there are very few rodents in the hunting area, which form the basis of their food.

Many collared moths move closer to people's homes for the winter and settle in the attics of houses, where there is a better chance of getting hold of prey (rats and mice) than in the wild during the harsh cold season. In this case, by the end of March, the birds leave their "winter apartments" and return to their usual nesting sites.

The main prey of collar moths is various small rodents. Little birds are much rarer in their diet. In summer, these scoops can also hunt various large moth beetles.

They start hunting at dusk, and during a dark moonless night and in the rain they usually do not hunt. During the day, these birds hide well among the branches of trees, against the background of which, due to the camouflage color of the scoops, it is almost impossible to detect. The collar scoop flies, like most owls, almost silently, nimbly fluttering among the trees, like a huge butterfly.


From the end of March, the mating season for the collar scoops starts. It was at this time in the forests that you can hear their invocative "serenades", sounding almost around the clock. Males show unprecedented activity even during the day.

Their simple monotonous kitchen-kitchen sounds (not in the breeding season, these owls are very silent) can hardly be called a real “serenade of love”, but this is exactly the role these shouts perform with interest. Females in response can make lingering meowing sounds.

By June, usually all collar scoops are already looking for a pair and start hatching offspring (up to 7 eggs in a clutch, hatching - 25 days). A month after birth, the chicks are already showing independence, and by the end of summer they leave their parents.

Usage Information

Photo "Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)" can be used for personal and commercial purposes according to the conditions of the purchased Royalty-free license. The image is available for download in high resolution quality up to 3115x2258.

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