Bird Families

Red Lumbar Fir / Lipaugus uropygialis

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List of Birds of Costa Rica Part 8 From Piha to Mockingbird

I continue to show the Sparrow Birds.
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PASSERIFORMES - Cotingidae
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197 (1175) Rufous Piha (Rufous Piha, Lipaugus unirufus unirufus)

On November 10, one bird at Carara National Park (Quebrada Ganado, Puntarenas).



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PASSERIFORMES - Pipridae
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198 (1176) Collar short-winged manakin (White-collared Manakin, Manacus candei)

On 2 November, several birds were seen at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).


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199 (1177) Ringed short-winged manakin (Orange-collared Manakin, Manacus aurantiacus)

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

On November 8, one male was seen at the Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).


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200 (1178) Blue-crowned Manakin, Lepidothrix coronata velutina)

On November 8, one female on a forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).
10 November, one female at Carara National Park (Quebrada Ganado, Puntarenas).


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PASSERIFORMES - Tityridae
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201 (1179) (Sulfur-rumped Myiobius, Myiobius sulphureipygius aureatus)

Seen on a forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province) on 8 November.


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202 (1180) Black-crowned Tityra, Tityra inquisitor fraserii)

Photographed the female in La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas) on October 28.


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203 Masked Tityra, Tityra semifasciata costaricensis)

On November 3, we met on the territory of Rancho Naturalista (Turrialba, Caribbean slope in the Cordillera Talamanca).
On November 9, one bird perches on a dry tree off the Road Gamba - Jaco.
Sighted on a boat trip on the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas) on 10 November.


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204 Brown Beckard (Cinnamon Becard, Pachyramphus cinnamomeus fulvidior)

Seen in mixed flock in Mistico Arenal Hanging Bridges Park (La Fortuna, Alajuela) on 29 October.
On November 2, we met at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).


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205 (1181) Rose-throated Becard, Pachyramphus aglaiae latirostris)

Synonym: Big Beckard

Saw a female at La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas on 28 October.
Seen on a forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province) on 8 November.
10 November, one female at Carara National Park (Quebrada Ganado, Puntarenas).
A female was seen on a boat trip on the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas) on 10 November.


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PASSERIFORMES - Vireonidae
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206 (1182) Yellow-winged Vireo, Vireo carmioli)

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

Photographed at Savegre Mountain Lodge (San Gerardo de Dota, Provincia de San Jose) on November 7.


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207 Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus olivaceus)

On November 2, we met at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).


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PASSERIFORMES - Corvidae
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208 Brown Jay Psilorhinus morio morio)

On October 25 and 26, we met groups of birds at the Hotel Buena Vista, Alajuela.
On October 29 and 30, flocks of up to 10 birds at the Arenal Observatory Lodge (La Fortuna, Alajuela).
Sighted at Rancho Naturalista (Turrialba, Caribbean slope in the Cordillera Talamanca) on 3 November.
Sighted at the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas) on 10 November.


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209 White-throated Magpie-Jay, Calocitta formosa pompata)

From 26 to 28 October, a flock of birds demanded bread from guests at La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas.


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PASSERIFORMES - Ptiliogonatidae
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210 (1183) Black-and-yellow silky flycatcher (Black-and-yellow Phainoptila, Phainoptila melanoxantha melanoxantha)

Synonym: Black-and-yellow Silky-flycatcher.

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

On November 5, a short meeting with a male near the Paraiso Quetzal Lodge restaurant (Cerro de la Muerte, San Gerardo de Dota, San Jose).


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211 (1184) Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher, Ptiliogonys caudatus)

Synonym: Long-tailed Silk Waxwing

Endemic to Costa Rica and Panama.

On 31 October, a flock of birds was seen feeding in the forest on the trail at Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).


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PASSERIFORMES - Hirundinidae
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212 (1185) Mangrove Swallow ( Tachycineta albilinea)

On 10 November, several birds were resting on islets in the middle of the river near the bridge over the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas).
A lot during boat trips on the river.


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213 Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea chalybea)

On November 8, we met near Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).


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214 (1186) Patagonian swallow (Blue-and-white Swallow, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca cyanoleuca)

Synonym: Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.

On the evening of October 30 and 31, many birds flew and sat on a wire at the Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).
For the night, all the birds sat under the eaves near the door to our room.
On November 5, we met at the Tropical Center (C.A.T.I.E., Turrialba). The birds were resting on the wires.


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215 Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis)

In Costa Rica, swallows of the following subspecies meet during the winter: S. s. serripennis and S. s. psammochroa, nests S. s. fulvipennis.

On October 26 and 27, we met at La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas).
Seen on wires at the Tropical Center (C.A.T.I.E., Turrialba) on 5 November.


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216 Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)

AND Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis

Seen on wires en route to Arenal Observatory Lodge (La Fortuna, Alajuela) on 29 October.
Seen on steam pipes at the Tropical Center (C.A.T.I.E., Turrialba) on 5 November.

B Stelgidopteryx ruficollis decolor

On November 10, we met during a boat trip on the Tarcoles River, Puntarenas.


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PASSERIFORMES - Troglodytidae
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217 (1187) Tiger Wren (Band-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus zonatus costaricensis)

Synonym: Tiger cactus wren.

On 2 November, several colored-ringed birds at La Selva Biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).
The female collected nesting material.


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218 Rufous-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus capistratus capistratus)

Extracted from Campylorhynchus rufinucha (Vazquez-Miranda et al 2009).

From 26 to 28 October we met at La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas).
On October 28, one bird in the city of Limonal (Guanacaste).
From 9 to 14 November are common at the Punta Leona Hotel & Club (Jaco, Puntarenas Province).


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219 (1188) Salvin's bush wren (Riverside Wren, Cantorchilus semibadius)

Synonyms: Salvin's Wren, Pheugopedius semibadius, Thryothorus nigricapillus semibadius, Thryothorus semibadius

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

Seen on the forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge and at the lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province) on 8 November.


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220 (1189) Stripe-breasted Wren, Cantorchilus thoracicus)

Synonym: Thryothorus thoracicus.

Endemic to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

On October 29, we were often seen while walking through the woods at Mistico Arenal Hanging Bridges Park (La Fortuna, Alajuela).


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221 House Wren (House Wren, Troglodytes aedon intermedius)

Synonym: Troglodytes musculus intermedius.

Some taxonomists divide this species into several, in the latter case it is Troglodytes musculus intermedius.

Seen on the grounds at the Arenal Observatory Lodge (La Fortuna, Alajuela) on 30 October.
On October 31, we met at the Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).
On November 7, we met at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).
From November 11 to November 14, I sometimes saw on the territory of the Punta Leona Hotel & Club (Jaco, Puntarenas Province).


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Mountain wren (Timberline Wren, Thryorchilus browni)

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

On November 7, we heard and briefly saw in paramos at an altitude of 3300 m num (Carretera Interamericana, near Siberia, Provincia de San Jose).
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222 (1169) Gray-breasted Wood Wren, Henicorhina leucophrys collina)

On October 31st, only heard in the forest on the trail at Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).
Sighted at Savegre Mountain Lodge (San Gerardo de Dota, Provincia de San Jose) on 5 November.


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PASSERIFORMES - Polioptilidae
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Long-billed Gnatwren, Ramphocaenus melanurus rufiventris)

On October 29, only heard in the woods at Mistico Arenal Hanging Bridges Park (La Fortuna, Alajuela).
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223 White-lored Gnatcatcher, Polioptila albiloris albiloris)

A flock of birds on the coast at La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas) October 28.


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PASSERIFORMES - Mimidae
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Mockingbird (Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis)

On November 2, a bird was seen in the distance in the rain at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia). Without photo.
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General description

Pine nuts are the seeds of the Italian pine of the same name, which are located in the cones. On the branches, they are arranged in brushes of 1-3 pieces. Nuts ripen in the third year of cone growth in October, and by the beginning of spring all the seeds fall out. Therefore, the harvesting of the pine tree begins in late October and early November.

Nuts have an oblong oval shape, dark brown in color with small light specks. The shells are much stronger than the shells of cedar seeds, so they must be husked manually with a nutcracker or industrially using a conveyor belt with closely spaced rollers.

On the sides of a ripe seed, facets are formed, usually there are three of them. They range in size from 1.5 to 1.7 cm. The taste of the nuts has a delicate consistency and a resinous aftertaste very similar to Siberian pine nuts. Pine nuts are considered to be the largest edible seeds among pine plants. The yield of mature trees is 3-8 tons of nuts per hectare. Italian pine can live for more than 500 years and at the same time actively bear fruit.

Wild pine is widespread on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the Pyrenean Peninsula and in Asia Minor. Pine is cultivated in the Caucasus and Crimea. The main world exporters of pine nuts are: Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Italy and Turkey.

The first mentions of the use of pine nuts have been preserved since the days of the Roman Empire. Before exhausting and lengthy military campaigns, soldiers took nuts with them to satisfy a slight hunger and recuperate. For the first time, Avicenna described the useful properties of pine in his book "The Canon of Medicine".

Selection and use

When buying pine seeds, you should pay attention to unpeeled nuts. They can be stored for a long time without losing their properties. Peeled nuts cannot be stored for more than two weeks. After this time, the fats in the pine tree begin to oxidize and turn rancid, and the fruits themselves absorb foreign odors. To prolong the freshness of shelled pine nuts, store them in the freezer.

Pine nuts are widely used in Italian and French cuisines for the preparation of pastries and classic sauces, and they are also used as a piquant spice for red meat.

Composition and presence of nutrients

Raw pine nut contains (in 100 g):

Calories 629 Calories

VitaminsmgMineralsmg
Vitamin B34,37Potassium, K 628
Vitamin C2Magnesium, Mg234
Vitamin B11,243Sodium, Na 72
Vitamin B20,223Phosphorus, P35
Vitamin B50,21Manganese, Mn4,333
Complete composition

The vitamin and mineral composition of pine nuts includes vitamins: groups B, E, C, minerals: phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt.

Pine nuts, like other pine nuts, contain a large amount of polyunsaturated fat.

Useful and medicinal properties

Nuts contain substances that help heal stomach ulcers, normalize the functioning of the stomach and intestines. Powdered nuts can be used to heal wounds. To do this, the powder is poured into the wound and a gauze bandage is made. The same dressing can be used to treat skin ulcers and burns with hot water or steam.

If the powder is poured with hot water and insisted for three minutes, then the resulting infusion can be used to rinse the throat for colds, coughs, gum diseases, and the steam released from the infusion can be used for inhalation for diseases of the bronchi and lungs. This helps the mucus drain. The infusion is also used for conjunctevitis and eyelash loss caused by mite parasites.

The use of whole peeled pine nuts has a diuretic effect, normalizes the functioning of the kidneys, liver, intestines, and also enhances the potency and motility of sperm. Pine nuts are useful for chronic fatigue caused by vigorous mental activity, lowered immunity, skin, heart disease, gallstones, and allergies.

Healing tincture on pine nuts

If you prepare an alcoholic infusion from whole unpeeled pine seeds, you can get an excellent remedy for back pain caused by osteochondrosis. For this, pine seeds (300 g), together with the shell, should be crushed in a coffee grinder and poured with boiled water (0.5 l) cooled to 50 ° C. The resulting infusion should be left to infuse in a dark place for 4-5 days. After this time, it is necessary to add purified medical alcohol (0.5 l) to the container with the infusion and leave to stand for another 3-4 weeks. The finished tincture should be filtered through cheesecloth and honey (200 g) added to it. Then pour everything into tightly closed dark glass bottles. You need to use medicinal tincture during the day for 1 tbsp. l. before every meal. Store the tincture in a cool dark place. Sometimes there is a stratification of pine tincture. Nut oil rises upward, and resinous substances precipitate into the sediment. If this happens, then before use, the entire mixture should be shaken well so that the components are mixed again.

Dangerous properties of pine nuts

Pine nuts are contraindicated in case of individual intolerance, obesity, as well as children under three years old, because there is a chance of getting nuts in the respiratory tract.

Excessive consumption of nuts can lead to impaired taste. This is due to the oxidative reactions of certain substances in pine nuts, which subsequently irritate the receptors and mucous membranes. Symptoms resolve within a few days.

An unusually beautiful and atmospheric video about where pine nuts grow, how they are harvested and peeled.

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