A small bird of the passerine order spreads a melodic trill, interspersing the song with gurgling or buzzing sounds. The rattle and play are seasoned with a variety of singing, but this is one singer - if you look closely, you can see an almost upright sitting shrike.
Description and features
The shrike is from the order of passerines. In appearance, the bird can be mistaken for a bullfinch, but upon close examination it has a powerful hawk beak, which eloquently testifies to its purpose. This is a predator, thanks to its modest size and camouflage color, it is easy for it to sneak up on its prey.
The concept of a bird of prey and a songbird has always been different, but nature has concluded both talents in a small birdie, a family of passerines at the same time. In addition to other advantages, song shrike possesses excellent artistic abilities, surprising listeners with various roulades, copies the singing of other birds.
Listen to the voice of a shrike
|A shrike can just for fun push an owl off a branch, or tease a falcon, neglecting the danger.|
A very friendly species - there are very strong bonds within the family - they support each other, protecting them from large predators. But they are very aggressive towards other species, the second part of the name: "put" from the word of Slavic origin "put" - to drive. He drives his own and others around him, except for smaller breeds, which are suitable for prey.
Will not disregard the hawk, owl, magpie, all competitors of the food chain. The Latin name "ekscubitor" means a watchman or a sentry, a daring guard will gladly spoil the hunt for other birds or animals, warning loudly about the approaching danger.
A dense, laterally compressed beak, a formidable hook-like beak, betrays a predator hiding behind the cute appearance of passerines. The birdie does not possess sharp fighting claws, although it is able to carry caught prey, holding it in its paws.
Karl Linay in 1780 in the book "The System of Nature" classified and described the species of shrike. Prior to this, naturalists called him the ash-gray magpie, blue waxwing. The closest relatives are the corvids family.
Nine species live, nest and breed in Russia.
- Japanese shrike (Lanius Bucephalus), red sides, white spot on the back, patterned scaly belly color,
- Tiger (Lanius tigrinus), standard size, striped back, black mark on the eyes, dirty gray belly, the female looks more modest - the color of the plumage is dull,
- Red-headed shrike (Lanius senator), the back is black, the head is red-brown, there are wide white stripes on the shoulders,
Listen to the voice of the red-headed shrike:
- Black-fronted shrike (Lanius minor), less than gray in size, the forehead is widely framed with a black spot, the bottom is white with a pinkish tinge, differs from its relatives in a wave-like flight,
Listen to the voice of the black-faced shrike:
- Gray shrike (Lanius eckubitor), light forehead, shorter tail, black stripe running through eyes, belly white,
Listen to the voice of the gray shrike:
- Wedge-tailed (Lanius sphenocercus), in comparison with other species, a larger bird, a long wedge-shaped tail, white stripes on the wings and shoulders,
- Siberian Shrike (Lanius cristatus), closest shrike kinsmanbelonging to the order of passerines, the head and tail are light brown, the abdomen is covered with a gray scaly pattern,
Listen to the voice of the Siberian shrike:
- Red-tailed Shrike (Lanius phoenikuroides), bright red tail, sandy body,
Listen to the voice of the red-tailed shrike:
- Shrike Shrike ordinary, (Lanius collurio) differs from the Siberian in the light gray color of the tail and head, the back is of a chestnut shade, the black framing of the eyes.
Lifestyle and habitat
The area of distribution of the species is the zone of the temperate and subarctic belt of the northern hemisphere, from forest tundra in the north to the steppes in the south. The habitat extends to the 50th parallel.
- Body length 24-38 cm,
- Wingspan 30-34cm,
- Weight 50-80 grams.
Habitat in Russia: from the Volga to the foothills of the southern Urals, along the southern outskirts of the Siberian taiga, along the Yenisei, found in Bashkiria. The forest-steppe subspecies lives in the Ryazan, Bryansk, Voronezh, Kaluga, Lipetsk regions. The Moscow region and its environs also have some forest resources to attract birds to their nesting sites. The Russian species is considered nomadic, and the southern ones are migratory.
During flights, it occurs not far from human settlements, although the bird is shy, it avoids meeting with a person. Sedentary nomadic species - in autumn and winter migratory birds go south, stopping for wintering in the southern regions of Ukraine, India, Africa - nomadic movement continues from October to March.
Europe has about 250 - 400 thousand individuals. The highest bird density among the Ukrainian-Belarusian Polesye, it is here that a significant expansion of the nesting area is observed. They fly in flocks or singly. Settlements and nesting sites cover North America, Asia, North Africa.
Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve is a wintering place for this species in Kamchatka. The bird's favorite places are in tall trees, in the dense crown it is difficult to notice it, but you can always admire the singing, because the sonorous trills are constantly heard among the greenery. Hearing a person, the bird won't fly away, it will only fly to another place.
The modest size has served well, the shrike calmly, without attracting too much attention, lands between unsuspecting sparrows. No one pays attention to him, while he slowly chooses a sparrow for dinner, scattering at the poor victim. Sparrows scatter, but the prey is already in its beak.
The favorite strategy of the predator is to look out for food for itself, from a tall tree, then headlong rushing down almost vertically. If the target has time to bounce sharply, he catches up with her quickly running on a flat surface.
Perfectly catches birds in flight - the hunter is so passionate that he snatches a sparrow, even from under the hand of a person, when he is desperately trying to escape. Getting into the trapping net along with the trophy, it does not stop, continuing to torment the caught game.
The shrike carries its prey to its favorite places for dining, usually a thorny bush with thorns or sharp branches. The hunter pricks it on a thorn, tearing it apart with its sharp beak. Why he acts in this way, biologists have no exact explanation. This is how representatives of all species of shrike act, which received the name of their species: Lanius - butcher.
The shrike is a bird of prey capable of attacking even sparrows
When the harvest years come, all branches within the robber's habitat are hung with stocks of mice or birds. A leaner time - only skins and feathers hang on them. Such fastening helps to easily deal with the caught game, the fastening on the thorns will not allow it to slip away or fall off the branch.
As birds teach their offspring to fly, to hunt, so shrieks teach a new generation to prick prey on thorns. Learning isn't easy, but persistence brings results. In addition to small birds, common shrike catches:
- Their mammals: murine rodents - voles, shrews, young rats,
- Nimble lizards, frogs, toads
- Cases of hunting for bats were recorded,
- Hymenoptera and Orthoptera insects (May beetle, beetle, weevil),
- Mayfly butterflies for feeding offspring,
- Snails, earthworms, spiders.
Sometimes he can catch a bird larger than himself, in the summer they eat blackberries, plums, figs. For food flies 400-500 meters, hovering over the marked victim.
Reproduction and life expectancy
|There are isolated cases of breeding in captivity.|
One year of age is the time of puberty, family life begins. Common shrike belongs to monogamous species, nesting period April - July. The most optimal for nesting are swamps, wet meadows with massifs of bushes, or single bushes.
Also nests in forest glades, fires, felling areas or forest edges. Nests are arranged on bushes or trees, choosing a thicker branch. Different types build houses at different heights, from two to nine meters above the ground. Often, nests are used for several years in a row, subjecting them to spring repair.
The mating song is pleasant, melodic, consisting of a complex sequence of busting and trills, although the male has a whole set of sharp cries, whistles, clicks to pursue the enemy. The boyfriend bows rhythmically to his chosen one, shouts, sings, hiding among the crown of a tree, then begins to defiantly fly in circles.
Spouses are equally involved in breeding offspring, only their roles differ. The male takes care of the female, singing beautiful songs to her, chooses a nesting place, puts several large branches at the base.
If courtship is accepted, then the female continues to build the nest further, adding twigs, blades of grass. As a result, a plump basket is obtained, it lays in the middle the wool of faded animals and feathers of birds. A winged builder frames the top of the nest with green grass, perhaps for disguise or for beauty.
Communicates with the groom and lays eggs. Usually egg laying takes place in the second half of April and May, sometimes eggs laid in June are found, apparently re-laying instead of stolen by the predator. The color of the eggs is whitish with scattered brown specks.
|The maximum age was recorded by ornithologists in Slovakia. It equals six years.|
The next half month is spent incubating the eggs. Clutch usually consists of 5 - 7 eggs, less often 8 - 9, incubation lasts 15 days. The father is engaged in obtaining food for himself and his wife. Chicks hatch blind, slightly pubescent along the barrels. The mouth inside is orange, bright, to attract the attention of parents.
They actively forage for their children for three weeks. Chicks leave the nest at the age of 18 - 20 days, and after another two weeks they become completely independent. In June you can already see the first young flying birds, but they do not go far from their parents.
Until the fall, they continue to use parental complementary foods, until it is time to gather in flocks. Cases were observed when half of the chicks joined the mother, and the other half joined the father.
Number shrike birds is rapidly decreasing due to a decrease in areas free from agricultural activities, the use of large amounts of pesticides. To preserve the species, it is necessary to preserve a landscape suitable for nesting birds, a ban on the use of chemicals in the agricultural field, and the introduction of environmental protection methods.
The Oksky Reserve is engaged in the study of settlements and migration of the species, protection of forests, the population density of the gray shrike is 50 pairs per 230 hectares. The nesting success in the study areas is 58%.
Other protected nesting sites are located in the Kandalaksha nature reserve, Laplandsky, Tsentralno-Lesnoye. They conduct a targeted study of the location of the species, monitoring of permanent nesting sites, and the study of related factors.
Shrike is listed in the Red Data Book to restore the population
The shrike is protected by the Red Data Book of Russia, the European Community for Environmental Protection. The Berne Convention included in Appendix No. 2 an agreement between Russia and India on the protection of migratory birds, including the gray shrike, black-tailed, tiger, Siberian shrike.
A person must take good care of the surrounding nature, participating in the movement to preserve endangered species. Community communities of bird watchers, foresters, and gamekeepers take care of improving forest lands and restoring populations of endangered birds. Shrike in the photo looks like a harmless peaceful bird.
See also other dictionaries:
gray-breasted shrike flycatcher - pilkoji medšarkinė musinukė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Colluricincla harmonica angl. gray shrike thrush vok. Graubrustpitohui rus. gray-breasted shrike flycatcher, f pranc. pitohui gris, m ryšiai: platesnis…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
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Graubrustpitohui - pilkoji medšarkinė musinukė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Colluricincla harmonica angl. gray shrike thrush vok. Graubrustpitohui rus. gray-breasted shrike flycatcher, f pranc. pitohui gris, m ryšiai: platesnis…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
gray shrike-thrush - pilkoji medšarkinė musinukė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Colluricincla harmonica angl. gray shrike thrush vok. Graubrustpitohui rus. gray-breasted shrike flycatcher, f pranc. pitohui gris, m ryšiai: platesnis…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
pilkoji medšarkinė musinukė - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Colluricincla harmonica angl. gray shrike thrush vok. Graubrustpitohui rus. gray-breasted shrike flycatcher, f pranc. pitohui gris, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - medšarkinės musinukės… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
pitohui gris - pilkoji medšarkinė musinukė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Colluricincla harmonica angl. gray shrike thrush vok. Graubrustpitohui rus. gray-breasted shrike flycatcher, f pranc. pitohui gris, m ryšiai: platesnis…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
List of birds of Bhutan - Contents 1 Order: Grebes (Podicipediformes) 1.1 Family: Grebes (Podicipedidae) ... Wikipedia
Ⓘ Shrike flycatchers
- Wood shrike flycatcher Colluricincla megarhyncha Quoy & Gaimard, 1830
- Colluricincla umbrina Reichenow, 1915
- Greenback Shrike flycatcher Colluricincla boweri Ramsay, 1885
- Gray-breasted shrike flycatcher Colluricincla harmonica Latham, 1802
- Colluricincla tenebrosa Hartlaub & Finsch, 1868
- Colluricincla sanghirensis Oustalet, 1881
- Colluricincla woodwardi Hartert, brown-breasted shrike flycatcher,
- northern relative - the brown-breasted shrike flycatcher eng. Russian .. The gray-breasted shrike flycatcher according to IUCN is in the list of species
- Black flycatchers lat. Melaenornis is a genus of passerine birds from the flycatcher family. Liberian black flycatcher Melaenornis annamarulae Forbes - Watson
- Pachycephalidae is a family of passerine birds. Aleadryas Iredale, 1956 Shrike flycatchers Colluricincla Vigors Horsfield, 1827 Coracornis Riley, 1918 Gray
- Tyrannous, or tyrant flycatchers lat. Tyrannidae is a vast family of passerine birds that live exclusively in America and the surrounding islands
- and migrating from other regions of the world: larks, paradise flycatchers, black-headed pheasants, spotted doves, African eared vultures, falcons
- Siberian flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica Broad-billed flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica Red flycatcher Muscicapa ferruginea Pine flycatcher Ficedula
- strepitans Bleda notatus A Order: Passeriformes Family: Shrikefoot waxwings Shrikefoot waxwings, Hypocolius ampelinus Order: Passeriformes
- endemic for the country black-breasted larvae, browed jungle flycatcher Sarawak whistler, red-headed pitta one - occasional vagrant
- Stachyridopsis rufifrons, red-bellied shrike Pteruthius rufiventer red-bellied shrike Pteruthius flaviscapis red-fronted
- rainbow birds, golden whistle English. Russian and a gray-breasted shrike flycatcher and chases them from their territories. The bird feeds mainly on
- Fiery misomela, Myzomela rubratra Order: Passerines Family: Shrike Siberian shrike, Lanius cristatus Order: Passerines Family:
- gray-breasted shrike-beak flycatcher, white-brown shrub bird, variegated pardalot, starling, golden-bellied golden-headed flycatcher
- Regulus ignicapillus A Order: Passeriformes Family: Shrikefoots Waxwings Shrikes, Hypocolius ampelinus A Order: Passeriformes
- Taiga flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki Japanese flycatcher Ficedula narcissina Luscinia sibilans Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica Daurian yellow-backed flycatcher Ficedula
- Family Oriole - Oriolidae Oriolus oriolus - Oriole Family Shrike - Laniidae Lanius collurio - Common shrike, or shrike - shrike
- flute birds, laughing kookabara, flutist crows, corvids and shrike flycatchers, and introduced mammals such as the common
- Yellow-backed flycatcher Ficedula narcissina - Japanese flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki - Taiga flycatcher or flycatcher - Mugimaki Ficedula parva - Lesser flycatcher Ficedula
- mountains there are birds from the order of passerines - gray-breasted shrike flycatchers Colluricincla harmonica beautiful painted Malure Malurus
- flute birds, laughing kookabara, flutist crows, crows, shrike flycatchers and introduced species such as the common fox
- laughing kookabara, crows - English flutists. Russian, corvids, shrike flycatchers as well as introduced mammals such as the common
- birds of prey.There are also known cases of ruin of the clutches of other birds, in particular the pied flycatcher. The construction and arrangement of the nest is exclusively
- laughing kookabara, crows - English flutists. russk., crows, shrike flycatchers and reptiles such as monitor lizards. Another threat to birds comes
- birds, laughing kookabara, crows - English flutists. Russian, crows, shrike flycatchers as well as introduced mammals such as fox, cat
- long-tailed flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca - flycatcher - pied fly Ficedula albicollis - flycatcher - white collar Ficedula parva - lesser flycatcher Muscicapa striata
- solitarius Gray flycatcher Muscicapa striata Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca White collar flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Lesser flycatcher Ficedula parva
- arundinaceus Gray flycatcher Muscicapa striata Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca White collar flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Lesser flycatcher Ficedula parva
- nisoria Gray flycatcher Muscicapa striata Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca White collar flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Lesser flycatcher Ficedula parva
- short-winged manakin Manacus vitellinus Shooter Acanthisitta chloris White-collar flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Hooded crow Corvus cornix White-necked
- rubecula White collar flycatcher Ficedula albicollis White collar flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca Lesser flycatcher Ficedula parva Semi-collared flycatcher Ficedula
- arundinaceus Gray flycatcher Muscicapa striata Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca White collar flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Lesser flycatcher Ficedula parva
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