Bird Families

Long-tailed Shrike / Lipaugus fuscocinereus

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Geography of residence

You can meet hurraguses only in Asia: in Japan, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, they also live along the entire length from the Urals to the Far East. Often for nesting, birds choose an area near Semipalatinsk, Kalbinsk Highlands in Altai, in summer birds can be seen near Lake Markakol. A small, isolated bird population lives in southern China.

Until the beginning of the 20th century, the habitat of birds was relatively small, and only in the last century did it expand towards the West, therefore, hurraguses can rarely be found in the European part of Russia and the countries of Eastern Europe.

During their migrations, birds try to stay near railways and highways.

Uragus female on wormwood. Photo of Uragus in winter. Photo of Uragus in Vladivostok in winter.

Appearance

Uraguses are relatively small birds, body length in adult birds is 15-21 cm, wings are 6.5-8 cm, and weight is no more than 22 grams. Although the birds resemble sparrows in size, they appear much larger due to their long tail. The bird's body is graceful, slightly stretched. Males are noticeably larger than females.

The tail length of which, about 85 mm, is a kind of balancer for the bird, holding the birds on the branch.

Sexual dimorphism in birds is manifested not only in the size of individuals. So the males are very variegated - the feathers of the head, upper tail and abdomen are bright pink, the tail and wings are black and white, and white specks are clearly visible on the throat and goiter, there are specks on the covering feathers of the ears. The eyes of the uragus are black, the beak is short and thick.

The color of females is similar to that of immature males. The birds are painted gray, with rare black specks on the body, feathers of the upper tail are pink or ocher. Differences in young and adult males persist up to 4-9 months, after which young males acquire an adult color.

There are three subspecies of hurraguses, differing from each other in size and location:

  1. Far Eastern hurricus. Representatives of this subspecies are slightly larger in size compared to ordinary Uragus (about 8 cm). This subspecies is completely fearless and inquisitive, therefore birds are often very close to human habitation.
  2. Ussuriysky hurragus, lives in the Ussuriysky basin and the Amur region, the size of the birds is 6.8-7.5 cm,
  3. Japanese hurragus. Birds live in Japan, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. The length of the bird is no more than 65 mm.
Uragus male at a watering hole in October. Uragus female at the watering hole. A female Uragus flew up from a wormwood bush in winter. Uragus eats wormwood seeds in winter.

Nutrition and lifestyle

For their nesting, hurraguses choose thickets of bushes near rivers and swamps, there must be meadows and glades nearby. Birds practically do not fly into the forest.

The basis of the diet of birds are flax seeds, hemp, wormwood, less often - small insects, chicks are fed with insects. It is easy for birds to pick seeds from the ground thanks to the small beak. If their favorite food is not enough, then the birds can feed on fruits and greens.

In the non-nesting period, birds often roam, both singly and in pairs, and in small groups of up to 10 birds, but a flock of hurraguses can be found extremely rarely. Quite often these birds are nailed to flocks of other birds - representatives of the finch family.

Birds have a very characteristic flight - fast and wave-like; when flying, the wings emit a specific sound "frr ..".

Males sing wonderfully, besides, they parody well the sounds of other birds, but females cannot sing melodiously, their song resembles a squeak.

Uragus male in wormwood and burdock thickets. Uragus female near sea buckthorn bushes. Uragus male. Uragus peels off the fruits of burdock, winter, Vladivostok. Uragus with the remnants of the meal on its beak. Uragus female on sea buckthorn.

Reproduction

The breeding season for birds starts quite late - in May. Birds nest in separate pairs not far from each other, usually in such a settlement up to 15 birds. The nest is located in a bush at a height of no more than 3 meters from the ground and has a glass-like shape; dry grass, bark, leaves, feathers and hair are used for its construction, and the tray is lined with pieces of wool.

The female begins to lay eggs in June. One clutch contains from 3 to 6 blue eggs with brown or black spots, which the female incubates, this period lasts about 14 days. Babies are born covered with thick smoky gray down. After the chicks are born, the female does not leave the babies, the male feeds her with the cubs. For two weeks, the chicks are completely dependent on their parents. After 15-20 days, the babies try to leave the nest, and after another week they become independent enough to leave the parental nest.

Uragus on a branch overgrown with moss. Uragus male is getting ready for a date. Uragus or long-tailed bullfinch.

Keeping Uragus in captivity

Uraguses can be kept in captivity and in recent years the birds have become very popular due to their beautiful color. In the first days, the bird may behave restlessly, but very quickly it gets used to it and even begins to recognize the owner. Over time, the bird even takes food from human hands.

At home, birds are fed with nuts, fruits, wheat, seeds, cereals and boiled eggs. Often, hurraguses are kept in the same cage with canaries or lovebirds, the main condition is that the cage is large and made of metal. In captivity, males perform their trills with pleasure.

Unfortunately, in captivity, males often lose their beautiful outfit, their feathers become dull in color.

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Ⓘ Collar Shrike Pikha

The collared shrike pikha is a bird of the coting family, one of 9 species of shrike pikh. The species was first described by scientists Salvin and Godman in 1884. It is a small bird about the size of a sparrow. The beak is short and sharp, the head is round. The main color of the plumage is dark gray, the belly is lighter, the bottom of the tail and throat are of a bright red-purple color. Because of the special coloration of the neck, it got its name "collar". However, only males have such a throat coloration. The diet is based on small insects and larvae. It inhabits forests growing in the Guiana Highlands in southeastern Venezuela, western Guyana and northern Brazil.

1. Etymology

The specific name of the collar shrike pikha - streptophorus in Latin means collar, the word itself is formed from two Greek words: streptos - collar and pherō - to wear.

3. Nutrition

Collar shrike firs feed on the fruits of plants, especially of the melastoma family. The fruits are picked in flight. Insects are also present in the diet.

4. Dissemination

Birds live in South America in 3 countries: in the southeast of Venezuela, the north of Brazil and the west of Guyana. They settle in the mountainous forests of the Guiana Plateau, preferring the outskirts. Collared shrike pikh can be found at an altitude of 1000 - 1800 m.

List of Birds of Costa Rica Part 8 From Piha to Mockingbird

I continue to show the Sparrow Birds.
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PASSERIFORMES - Cotingidae
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197 (1175) Rufous Piha (Rufous Piha, Lipaugus unirufus unirufus)

November 10, one bird at Carara National Park (Quebrada Ganado, Puntarenas).



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PASSERIFORMES - Pipridae
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198 (1176) Collar short-winged manakin (White-collared Manakin, Manacus candei)

On 2 November, several birds were seen at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).


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199 (1177) Ringed short-winged manakin (Orange-collared Manakin, Manacus aurantiacus)

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

On November 8, one male was seen at the Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).


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200 (1178) Blue-crowned Manakin, Lepidothrix coronata velutina)

On November 8, one female on a forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).
10 November, one female at Carara National Park (Quebrada Ganado, Puntarenas).


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PASSERIFORMES - Tityridae
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201 (1179) (Sulfur-rumped Myiobius, Myiobius sulphureipygius aureatus)

Seen on a forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province) on 8 November.


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202 (1180) Black-crowned Tityra, Tityra inquisitor fraserii)

Photographed the female in La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas) on October 28.


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203 Masked Tityra, Tityra semifasciata costaricensis)

On November 3, we met on the territory of Rancho Naturalista (Turrialba, Caribbean slope in the Cordillera Talamanca).
On November 9, one bird perches on a dry tree off the Road Gamba - Jaco.
Sighted on a boat trip on the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas) on 10 November.


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204 Brown Beckard (Cinnamon Becard, Pachyramphus cinnamomeus fulvidior)

Seen in mixed flock in Mistico Arenal Hanging Bridges Park (La Fortuna, Alajuela) on 29 October.
On November 2, we met at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).


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205 (1181) Rose-throated Becard, Pachyramphus aglaiae latirostris)

Synonym: Big Beckard

Saw a female at La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas on 28 October.
Seen on a forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province) on 8 November.
10 November, one female at Carara National Park (Quebrada Ganado, Puntarenas).
A female was seen on a boat trip on the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas) on 10 November.


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PASSERIFORMES - Vireonidae
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206 (1182) Yellow-winged Vireo, Vireo carmioli)

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

Photographed at Savegre Mountain Lodge (San Gerardo de Dota, Provincia de San Jose) on November 7.


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207 Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus olivaceus)

On November 2, we met at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).


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PASSERIFORMES - Corvidae
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208 Brown Jay Psilorhinus morio morio)

On October 25 and 26, we met groups of birds at the Hotel Buena Vista, Alajuela.
On October 29 and 30 flocks of up to 10 birds at the Arenal Observatory Lodge (La Fortuna, Alajuela).
Sighted at Rancho Naturalista (Turrialba, Caribbean slope in the Cordillera Talamanca) on 3 November.
Sighted near Tarcoles River (Puntarenas) 10 November.


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209 White-throated Magpie-Jay, Calocitta formosa pompata)

From 26 to 28 October, a flock of birds demanded bread from guests at La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas.


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PASSERIFORMES - Ptiliogonatidae
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210 (1183) Black-and-yellow silky flycatcher (Black-and-yellow Phainoptila, Phainoptila melanoxantha melanoxantha)

Synonym: Black-and-yellow Silky-flycatcher.

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

On November 5, a short meeting with a male near the Paraiso Quetzal Lodge restaurant (Cerro de la Muerte, San Gerardo de Dota, San Jose).


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211 (1184) Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher, Ptiliogonys caudatus)

Synonym: Long-tailed Silk Waxwing

Endemic to Costa Rica and Panama.

On 31 October, a flock of birds was seen feeding in the forest on the trail at Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).


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PASSERIFORMES - Hirundinidae
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212 (1185) Mangrove Swallow, Tachycineta albilinea)

On 10 November, several birds were resting on islets in the middle of the river near the bridge over the Tarcoles River (Puntarenas).
A lot during boat trips on the river.


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213 Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea chalybea)

On November 8, we met near Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).


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214 (1186) Patagonian swallow (Blue-and-white Swallow, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca cyanoleuca)

Synonym: Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.

On the evening of October 30 and 31, many birds flew and sat on the wire at the Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).
For the night, all the birds sat under the eaves near the door to our room.
On November 5, we met at the Tropical Center (C.A.T.I.E., Turrialba). The birds were resting on the wires.


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215 Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis)

In Costa Rica, swallows of the following subspecies meet during the winter: S. s. serripennis and S. s. psammochroa, nests S. s. fulvipennis.

On October 26 and 27, we met at La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas).
Seen on wires at the Tropical Center (C.A.T.I.E., Turrialba) on 5 November.


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216 Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)

AND Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis

Seen on wires en route to Arenal Observatory Lodge (La Fortuna, Alajuela) on 29 October.
Seen on steam pipes at the Tropical Center (C.A.T.I.E., Turrialba) on 5 November.

B Stelgidopteryx ruficollis decolor

On November 10, we met during a boat trip on the Tarcoles River, Puntarenas.


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PASSERIFORMES - Troglodytidae
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217 (1187) Tiger Wren (Band-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus zonatus costaricensis)

Synonym: Tiger cactus wren.

On 2 November, several colored-ringed birds at La Selva Biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia).
The female collected nesting material.


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218 Rufous-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus capistratus capistratus)

Extracted from Campylorhynchus rufinucha (Vazquez-Miranda et al 2009).

From October 26 to 28, we met at La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas).
On October 28, one bird in the city of Limonal (Guanacaste).
From November 9 to November 14, they are common at the Punta Leona Hotel & Club (Jaco, Puntarenas Province).


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219 (1188) Salvin's bush wren (Riverside Wren, Cantorchilus semibadius)

Synonyms: Salvin's Wren, Pheugopedius semibadius, Thryothorus nigricapillus semibadius, Thryothorus semibadius

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

Seen on the forest trail at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge and at the lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province) on 8 November.


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220 (1189) Stripe-breasted Wren, Cantorchilus thoracicus)

Synonym: Thryothorus thoracicus.

Endemic to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

On October 29, we were often seen while walking through the woods at Mistico Arenal Hanging Bridges Park (La Fortuna, Alajuela).


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221 House Wren (House Wren, Troglodytes aedon intermedius)

Synonym: Troglodytes musculus intermedius.

Some taxonomists divide this species into several, in the latter case it is Troglodytes musculus intermedius.

Seen on site at the Arenal Observatory Lodge (La Fortuna, Alajuela) on 30 October.
On October 31, we met at the Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).
On November 7, we met at Esquinas Rainforest Lodge (Piedras Blancas National Park, La Gamba, Golfito, Puntarenas Province).
From November 11 to November 14, I sometimes saw on the territory of the Punta Leona Hotel & Club (Jaco, Puntarenas Province).


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Mountain wren (Timberline Wren, Thryorchilus browni)

Endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama.

On November 7, we heard and briefly saw in paramos at an altitude of 3300 m num (Carretera Interamericana, near Siberia, Provincia de San Jose).
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222 (1169) Gray-breasted Wood Wren, Henicorhina leucophrys collina)

On October 31st, only heard in the forest on the trail at Bosque de Paz Lodge (Bajo del Toro, Alajuela).
Sighted at Savegre Mountain Lodge (San Gerardo de Dota, Provincia de San Jose) on 5 November.


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PASSERIFORMES - Polioptilidae
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Long-billed Gnatwren, Ramphocaenus melanurus rufiventris)

On October 29, only heard in the woods at Mistico Arenal Hanging Bridges Park (La Fortuna, Alajuela).
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223 White-lored Gnatcatcher, Polioptila albiloris albiloris)

A flock of birds on the coast at La Ensenada Lodge (La Ensenada Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas) October 28.


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PASSERIFORMES - Mimidae
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Mockingbird (Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis)

On November 2, a bird was seen in the distance in the rain at La Selva biological Station (Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Heredia). Without photo.
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