T. V. Svetlova, I. V. Zmitrovich
TRUTS AND OTHER WOOD-WORKING APHILLOPHORIC MUSHROOMS
Trametes trogii - trametes Trog and Trametes gallica - Gallic trametes
Trametes trogii - Trog's trametes (Trog's tinder fungus) has annual, often persisting until spring, fruiting bodies of various shapes - from completely prostrate to sessile, single or collected in tiled groups. The caps reach 9 cm in greatest dimension, are covered with stiff bristly or adpressed hairs, the color varies from whitish-grayish to yellowish-brownish. The fabric is light, cream or wood-colored. The hymenophore is light, in young specimens it is almost white with a grayish tinge, later it turns slightly brown. The pores are very large, rounded, angular or irregular, 1-2 by 1 mm. This type is easily recognized by the coarse pile on the caps and a peculiar pore surface.
f.076 Trametes trogii - Trog's trametes (Trog's tinder fungus): 1, 2) young specimens T. trogii, 3, 4) fruiting bodies T. trogii in winter
Is growing T. trogii mainly on willows (willows and poplars), but it is also found on other deciduous species, as an exception - on conifers. In Perm, for example, it is the main pathogen in parks, which has chosen dry ash trees. The forms growing on willows have a faint aniseed odor (like T. suaveolens, only with an unpleasant sour tint). In Russia, it is a widespread species found in all regions. On North T. trogii reaches Karelia, to the south - to tropical Asia. In Western Europe, it is rare and listed in the Red Data Books. Some of its forms are close in appearance to Trametes gallica, which is distinguished by thinner caps and gray-brown fabric.
f.077 Trametes trogii - trametes Trog (tinder fungus Trog): resupinate fruiting bodies
Trametes gallica (syn. Coriolopsis gallica) - Gallic trametes in the shape of fruit bodies, in the nature of pubescence of the caps and the structure of the hymenophore, is very close to the tinder fungus Trog. Fruit bodies T. gallica on average, slightly smaller in size (although large specimens can also be found) and in thickness. The caps are reddish-brown with barely noticeable zones and tomentose pubescence, the hymenophore is ocher-brown, even darker with age, the tissue is also much darker - brown, gray-brown, sometimes with an olive tint, darkens under the influence of KOH (but does not turn black). This is a predominantly southern (nemoral-subtropical) species that is found on stumps and dry trunks of many deciduous species, and occasionally on living trees. This species has not yet been found by the forum participants.
1.4.4. Types of childbirth Cerrena and Datronia
Cerrena unicolor - cerrene monochromatic
The fruiting bodies of this tinder fungus are annual, from prostrate to sessile, more often prostrate-bent, collected in tiled groups. The caps are usually medium-sized, rarely reaching 10 cm in the largest dimension, leathery, flexible, concentric-furrowed, zonal. The surface is bristly hairy, grayish-yellowish, covered with a green bloom of algae. The tissue is thin, grayish-yellowish to brownish, two-layered, with a dark line between the layers, visible in the section. The surface of the hymenophore is creamy, ash-gray, turning brown with age, tubules up to 4 mm long, uneven pores, labyrinth-like, later ruptured to irpex-like, on average 2-4 per 1 mm.
f.078 Cerrena unicolor - Cerrene monochromatic: fruiting bodies of different ages at different times of the year
Is growing Cerrena unicolor on dead and dead trunks and large branches of many deciduous species, as an exception, on some conifers, fruiting bodies are often preserved until spring. A common widespread species.
f.079 Cerrena unicolor - Cerrene monochromatic: characteristic surface of caps of fruiting bodies
Cerrenus monochromatic is easily recognizable by its fleecy greenish caps (usually uneven, wavy) and an ash-gray labyrinth-like hymenophore with rather small pores. It is the structure and color of the hymenophore of cerren that easily differs from small fruiting bodies. Trametes hirsuta and Lenzites betulina, which can be very similar in color and pubescence of their caps. It also differs from these types in the color of the fabric (in T. hirsuta and L. betulina fabric is white).
Datronia (Polyporus) mollis - soft datronia
Datronia mollis - a widespread and very variable species, similar in appearance to Cerrena unicolor... However, recent studies show that this type of trametoid morphotype most likely belongs to the genus Polyporus... It is characterized by one-year open or prostrate-bent fruiting bodies, on a vertical substrate forming groups of small tiled caps reaching 7 cm in width.
f.080 Datronia mollis - soft datronia: young and actively growing fruiting bodies
The caps are irregularly concentric-zonal, their surface is nut-brown to umber, slightly pubescent in young fruiting bodies, velvety, with age it quickly becomes bare and darkens to almost black. The fabric is brownish, thin, tough. The pore surface is very characteristic - with large thick-walled pores, on a vertical substrate the hymenophore has an irregular structure, the pores are rounded, angular, labyrinth-like and oblique to deale-shaped, on average 1-2 per 1 mm. The color of the hymenophore, depending on the age of the fungi, ranges from almost white to grayish brown.
Cerrena unicolor: how it looks, where and how it grows, edible or not
Cerrene monochromatic (Cerrena unicolor)INEDIBLE
Fruit body. 5-8 (10) cm wide, semicircular, sessile, adherent sideways, sometimes narrowed at the base, thin, felt on top, concentrically furrowed, with weak zones, first grayish, then gray-brownish, gray-ocher, sometimes dark at the base, almost black or green with moss, with a lighter, sometimes whitish, wavy edge. Tubular layer. First medium-porous, then dissected, with elongated, characteristically sinuous pores, inclined towards the base, grayish, gray-cream, gray-brownish. Pulp. First leathery, then hard, corky, separated from the upper felt layer by a thin black stripe, whitish or yellowish, with a pungent spicy odor. The spore powder is whitish. Beneficial features. This particular mushroom turned out to be the most promising for medicine. According to the research results, it is cerrene monochromatic that has the greatest antitumor activity. The mechanism of action of the mushroom extract is to stimulate the immune system. Mushroom properties, markedly increase the production of B-lymphocytes and antibodies. Thus, the immune system actively resists cancer. In addition, an increased blood level of cytokines with anti-inflammatory properties is noted; these substances also make a significant contribution to increasing the body's resistance.
Wood preparation. Hardwood trees are felled after the leaves fall and before bud break. Tree trunks with a diameter of 15-20cm. sawn into cuts 1m long. and put in a woodpile in a shady place. Before inoculation, freshly cut wood should be aged for about 2 months. Immediately before planting, the trunks are sawn into 15-20 cm long cuts.
Inoculation. Holes with a diameter of 10-15 mm are drilled in the cuts. and a depth of 30-60mm. then they fill them with mycelium of the fungus, and on top they cover the hole with a thin layer of paraffin or wax.
Garden bed device. A trench 1m wide is dug in the ground. and a depth of 15cm. arbitrary length. Then, in the trench, the cuts are carefully placed in two rows at the same level. The distance between the rows is 40-50cm, and between the cuts in a row is 5-7cm. The free space in the trench is covered with good fertile soil up to the upper edge of the timber. On top of the cut, the mulching material is poured with a layer of 2-3 cm. (sawdust, straw, etc.). If the soil is cold, then the trench is covered from above with a film, building a kind of greenhouse.
Maintaining a microclimate. During the growth of the mycelium in the bed, it is necessary to maintain a high temperature (20-26 ° C).
Fruiting. Fruiting bodies are usually formed one year after inoculation. For fruiting, a sufficiently high air humidity (70-85%) and a temperature in the range of 18-26 ° C are required. Usually the stump bears fruit once.
Consumption rate : one package of mycelium is enough for 30KG wood.
Substrate components. Currently, as a rule, a mixture of sawdust and chips (1: 1) of deciduous trees is used. To increase the yield, 5-15% of cereal bran is added to the main substrate, but no more. Then the mixture is soaked in a molasses solution (0.2%) for 3-4 days and fermented at room temperature.
Substrate preparation. The prepared substrate with a moisture content of up to 60% is placed in polypropylene bags 20 by 40 cm. and sterilized for 2 hours in hot water.
Inoculation. The inoculum is introduced into the substrate in compliance with the rules of sterility in the amount of 2%. After inoculation, the bags are transferred to a dark room and placed on racks.
Mycelium growth in the substrate. In the chamber, where the substrate fouling occurs, it is necessary to maintain the temperature within the range of 22-27 ° C. Gas exchange takes place through cotton-gauze plugs that close the bags or vessels. As a rule, complete colonization of the substrate occurs 20-30 days after sowing.
Fruiting. In a room with a temperature of 20-22 ° C, fruiting begins in 30-40 days. After removing the upper part of the bags, the CO2 level drops sharply and the formation of a hat begins, which requires a lighting level of 75-100 lux. It is also necessary to maintain a high humidity level of 90-95%, otherwise fruiting bodies will not form.
Harvesting. In the first wave of fruiting, a yield is usually obtained that is 6-10% of the mass of the substrate, in the second 2-4%. The fruiting cycle of all phases usually takes 3-4 months.
Consumption rate : 2% of the total mass of the prepared substrate
Scientists' discovery points to the effectiveness of Cerrena unicolor in the fight against cancer
For many years, thousands of people have been fighting cancer, and scientists are still looking for an effective drug to fight the "killer" of the 21st century.
Researchers from the Department of Biology and Biotechnology of the University of Maria Curie-Sklodowska went a step further in search, who discovered that the well-known fungus that is responsible for the death of trees can be very helpful in the fight against cancer.
Cancer drug based on the fungus Cerrena unicolor
Cerrene monochromatic - This is an unremarkable mushroom that is considered a tormentor of trees and their roots. It can be found almost everywhere. And, probably, no one would have thought that a tree parasite could defeat human diseases. Fortunately, they were interested in researchers from the University of Marie Curie-Sklodowska.
The discovery of Polish scientists is a significant step for the development of oncology. It provides a chance for the ultimate victory in the fight against cancer. Previously, monochromatic cerrene was used mainly in industry: it was added in the production of paints and dyes. Now it was possible to study its properties from the angle of biomedicine.
According to the assurances of scientists, in the near future, a drug will be created that will help in the fight against cancer... At the same time, they note that the biggest problem is the transition from one stage of research to the next. This requires funds that, unfortunately, they do not have.
Equally important responsibility of scientists for spoken wordsbecause it is easy to inform the whole world that a cure has been found that will cure cancer and thus give hope to many people suffering from cancer.
The main character is lacaza
Researchers claim that an enzyme, lacase, isolated from the fungus Cerrena unicolor, acts on individual cancer cells.
The next stages of the study will have to confirm the effect of substances on tumor cells in living organisms. Scientists confirm that preliminary research offers great hope.
Researchers report that lacase acts only on tumor cells without affecting healthy tissue. This is the biggest success!
The enzyme worked best on cervical cancer cells, but it also showed positive effects in the fight against melanoma and blood cancer. In addition to its antitumor effect, lacase also exhibits antiviral properties.
Cerrena monochromatic: photo and description
Cerrena unicolor is known under the Latin name Cerrena unicolor. Mushroom from the Polyporovye family, genus Cerren.
The species forms dense, numerous groups of fruiting bodies.
What does cerrene monochromatic look like?
The fungus has a one-year biological cycle, less often fruiting bodies are preserved until the beginning of the next growing season. Old specimens are stiff and fragile. The main color is gray, not monotonous with weakly expressed concentric zones of a brown or brown hue. On the edge, the seal is in the form of a beige or whitish color.
External characteristic of cerrene monochromatic:
- The shape of the fruit bodies is semicircular fan-shaped, outstretched with wavy edges, narrowed at the base.
- The cap is thin, up to 8-10 cm in diameter, sitting, tiled. Mushrooms densely growing at one level, accrete with lateral parts.
- The surface is bumpy, densely covered with fine pile; closer to the base, the areas are often found under moss.
- The hymenophore is tubular, weakly porous at the beginning of the growing season, then partially destroyed, becomes dissected, serrated with an inclination to the base. Large oval cells are arranged in a labyrinth.
- The color of the spore-bearing layer is creamy with a gray or brown tint.
- The pulp is tough corky, consists of two layers, the upper leathery is separated from the lower by a black thin stripe. The color is beige or light yellow.
Radial stripes are concentrated in the upper part of the fruiting body
Where and how it grows
Common cerrene is widespread in the European part, the North Caucasus, Siberia, and the Urals. The species is not tied to a specific climatic zone. The fungus is a saprophyte parasite on the remains of deciduous trees. Prefers open areas, forest clearings, roadsides, ravines. Fruiting - from June to late autumn.
Is the mushroom edible or not
Cerrene monochromatic does not represent nutritional value due to its tough pulp and pungent odor. In mycological reference books, it is assigned to the group of inedible mushrooms.
Doubles and their differences
To a greater or lesser extent, monochromatic cerrene is similar to the varieties of Coriolis. More similar in appearance is the covered trametez, especially at the beginning of development. The twin is inedible with thick-walled pores and pale ash coloration. Odorless mushroom and black stripes between the layers.
The stripes are dark gray, occasionally with a yellowish tinge, the edges are sharp and light brown
The mushroom was originally described by the French botanist Jean Bulliard in 1785 as Boletus UNICOLOR when all the mushrooms were sweating, usually assigned to the genus boletus ... William Alphonso Murrill passed it on Cerrena in 1903. the fungus acquired long and extensive synonyms, as it was redescribed under various names, and was passed on by many tinder fungus genera.
Cerrena unicolor has fruiting bodies that are semicircular, undulating braces up to 10 cm (4 in) wide. When applied to a growing surface without a stem (rocky), the upper surface is finely hairy, from white to grayish brown, and in a zoned star with zones or concentric stripes of color. The surface is often green from algae growth. The pore surface is whitish in juveniles, then turned gray at maturity. The arrangement of the pores resembles a labyrinth of slots; pipes can extend up to 4 mm in depth. Dispute print white.
The spores are elliptical, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid, and have a size of 5-7 from 2.5-4 microns.
Cerrena unicolor causes ulcers rot and decay in paper birch ( paper birch ) and sugar maple ( Acer sugar ). The mushroom is widespread and is found in Asia, Europe, South America and North America.
Cerrena unicolor has been identified as a source of the laccase enzyme. This enzyme has potential uses in a wide variety of bioprocesses. S. Unicolor it is known to produce laccase in culture under more favorable conditions and with a higher yield than other rotting fungi wood, and research focuses on methods of producing laccase economically on a large scale.