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Endemic Birds of Jamaica - Jamaican Endemic 2021 - Food - Nc to do

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Photo © Lee Hunter / Flickr / Used With Permission

Birds all over the world travel a lot to add endemic birds to their lists of life - birds that can only be seen in one place. The tropical island of Jamaica is one of the Caribbean's most popular destinations for endemic birds, and is home to an astounding 28 endemic species.

Why Jamaica

As a tropical island, Jamaica's climate is a bird quarter all year round. The island also boasts a range of habitats, from lush low-lying jungles and extensive coastlines to high-altitude mountains and medium-sized meadows.

Winding rivers, dramatic waterfalls, coffee plantations, and dry savannahs all contribute to the country's diversity of habitats, which in turn leads to its bird diversity. Over 300 bird species can be seen throughout the year and counting a wide range of migrant species in Jamaica. Of these, there are more than 125 breeds on the island, and 28 are nowhere else in the world.

The raven

If people had wings and wore black feathers, then even then
not many of them would be smart enough to be crows.
Rev. Henry Ward Beecker


Corvus

KingdomAnimals
A typeChordates
ClassBirds
SquadPasserine
FamilyCorvids
GenusCrows

So, first you need to figure out who we are talking about. Due to the dictionary similarity of the Russian words "raven" and "raven", the erroneous opinion is widespread that these are representatives of the same biological species of different sexes. However, this is not the case, and it should be remembered that the raven is not the “husband of the raven” at all, but an independent species that includes males and females.
There is a certain classification where the following subspecies of the common crow are distinguished:


  • C. c. corax - the entire European part of the species range (without Spain and Portugal) southward to the Crimea, the Caucasus, Kopetdag, northern Iran, Western and central Siberia.
  • C. c. varius- Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
  • C. c. subcorax - Greece, Central Asia, western China except the Himalayas.
  • C. c. tingitanus - North Africa, south to Sousse (south of the Atlas), east to Cyrenaica and Mersa Matruh, Canary Islands.
  • C. c. tibetanus - all mountainous Central Asia (except Turkmenistan), the Himalayas and Tibet.
  • C. c. kamtschaticus - Siberia east of the Lena River south to Transbaikalia and Mongolia.
  • C. c. principalis - Greenland and Arctic North America to British Columbia.
  • C. c. sinuatus - west of the United States, in the south to the north of Honduras and Mexico and the adjacent islands.
  • S. s. laurencei - Palestine, Syria, Baluchistan, mountains of eastern Iran, northwestern India from Rajputan to Sindh and Punjab, probably Asia Minor.
  • S. s. hispanus - Spain, Portugal, Balearic Islands.


(* A list of species of the genus corvids is attached at the end of the work.)

The subspecies differ mainly in size, as well as in the color of the base of a small feather. In the European and Asian parts of the range, the size of ravens increases in the direction from west to east. There are also exceptions: birds from Iceland and the Faroe Islands are larger than the nominal form, crows from Western Siberia, on average, are smaller than crows from the European part of Russia. The farther south, the smaller the American crows. Ecological differences are expressed mainly by the peculiarities of the biotopic distribution of subspecies, some details of the reproductive cycle, and the like.
We're going to talk about Corvus corax - Common Crow. An ordinary raven and someone will say that, because we know that this is an extraordinary bird, but everything is in order.
The RAVEN is one of the largest representatives of the passerine order:
- the length of his body is 60-65 cm. Males are larger than females, but otherwise they are completely similar and it is difficult to distinguish a boy from a girl,
- wing length in males 410-473 mm, in females 385-460 mm, and on average 441.2 and 432.3 mm,
- the wingspan reaches 1.20 m,
- weight of males 1100-1560 g, females - 798-1315 g,
- life expectancy - from 20 to 100 years,
- voice - a very characteristic croak: "kruk-kruk", among young people - "kaa-kaa".

The color is monochromatic, the plumage is black, with a bluish or greenish tint. In juveniles, the plumage is dull black without a metallic sheen. In adults, the color is black, purple or purple on the head, neck and wings, and a bluish metallic tint on the underside of the body. The bases of the small feathers are grayish. Craw feathers are pointed. The iris of the eye is dark brown. The beak is sharp and strong, black in color. The tarsus is covered behind by a plate, in front, like the fingers, with large sharply delimited shields. Strong, curved nails. The tail is wedge-shaped, which is striking in flight.

It is not surprising that the Raven is such a significant symbolic bird in the myths and legends of many peoples, because it is widespread in Eurasia, North America, North Africa. In Europe from the north of Norway, Sweden, Finland, the north of Russia to the south to Portugal, the Pyrenees, Italy, western Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, the Black Sea, the Caucasus. To the east through Western, Central and Eastern Siberia, where the northern border of the range, with some exceptions, runs along the coast, the raven is distributed to Anadyr, the Chukchi Peninsula, Kamchatka, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. In the south, the range includes North Africa, Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Iran, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, northwestern India, the Himalayas, Tibet and Mongolia, westward to Kobdo and Lob Nora. Also distributed in Greenland and North America. But despite this, the crow is still by no means numerous, but in some places even a rare bird. You can meet a crow all year round, in winter most often near a person's dwelling, in landfills. This is a very careful bird, walks well, and before climbing on its wings, the raven makes several jumps. The flight of a raven is more like the flight of a bird of prey than the flight of other corvids.


The raven's diet is varied. The raven is an omnivorous bird. The main place in the diet is occupied by carrion, which the crows feed on in landfills and at slaughterhouses. In this respect, the raven acts as a sanitary bird. Along with carrion, rodents, in particular voles and especially the common vole, as well as small birds, bird eggs, insects, and especially May beetles, play an important role in the diet of this bird. Crows hunt in the steppes bordering the forest, in mountain pastures, along the foothills, on the sea and river coasts.

The crow is not a strictly sedentary bird; sometimes they gather in small flocks of 40-70 birds and wander. In the nesting relation, crows are associated with the forest, but usually they do not adhere to deaf areas of the taiga. In treeless places it prefers to swim near rocks, coastal cliffs of river valleys. It nests on a variety of trees: aspen, linden and oak, as well as within the cultural landscape - on bell towers, tall buildings.
Crow's sexual maturity occurs at the age of about 2 years. Their couples are constant. The nesting areas are vast - about 3-4 km in a straight line, sometimes much more - up to 10 km. In the event of the ruin of the nest and the death of the hatched clutch, the crow does not fly away, but builds a nest (or occupies someone else's) right there within the old nesting area. A pair usually has two nests that birds use in different years. The jacks have been in use for years, even decades. A male and a female take part in the construction of a new nest and in the repair of an old nest.

The number of eggs in a clutch is 4-6, sometimes 3 or 7. The interval between egg-laying is 1-2 days. The average size of the eggs is 49.7x33.4 mm. The coloration is bluish-green with grayish-green and brown markings. According to some sources, the male and female hatch alternately, according to other sources - only the female. Incubation begins with the laying of the 2nd or 3rd egg for 19-21 days. Normally, one clutch per year, in case of its death, it happens, judging by the available data, additional. Both parents feed the chicks with the same food that they eat themselves.

Due to their elegance, ingenuity and ability to imitate, including the human voice, they are often kept at home as a pet (life expectancy is from 15 to 69 years). The first months of their life, birds are soft and obedient, it is not difficult to tame them. Having matured, the birds do not recognize anyone except the owner, who raised them from the chick age. After a year or two, the birds grow up and try to fly away from the parent, in this case a person. Adult birds hardly lend themselves to domestication. And it's not for nothing that crows are called tricksters - their passion for destruction is incredibly great. In the shortest possible time (15-30 minutes), an unattended raven can scatter things, break buttons of household appliances, tear paper and tear off part of the wallpaper.

At all times, the Raven carried the help of magic - this was the truth in many cultures around the planet. It is the Raven's sacred way of raising wizards. Only those who are trained in the dark side of witchcraft can fear the Raven. The raven is a bird that brings people news from another world. And usually the news is bad. Crows teach us that truth is more important and more real than illusions and fairy tales, no matter how much people want to part with them. Ravens are tricksters, one way or another, they are a creator and a joker at the same time. This is a serious bird, always having a strong opinion on various occasions. The raven, widespread in mythological representations, has a significant range of functions, is associated with various elements of the universe (the underworld, earth, water, sky, sun), which testifies to the deep mythological semantics of this character.

The raven is a talking bird that symbolizes prophecy. It is at the same time solar good and darkness of evil, wisdom and destruction of war. Ravens, like wolves, are frequent companions of the primeval gods of the dead. In general, the black raven is a bird of ill omen, but the raven with the white feather is a good sign. This bird, and even an ominous black color, is associated with death by many. Many scavengers in the views of different peoples were a kind of mediators between the world of the living and the world of the dead. In ancient times, they accompanied predators dangerous to humans - wolves, bears, as well as armed people.
In alchemy, a raven depicted next to a skull or tombstone symbolizes blackness and mortification, nigredo - the first stage of the "Little Work", the death of the world, the principle "earth to earth" ("... dust and dust you will turn).

Almost all peoples had a special attitude towards the raven. Some revered him, others were afraid, but few remained indifferent. This is not surprising - a large strong bird, black as the night itself, one of the most intelligent and quick-witted. No wonder the raven is a symbol of wisdom. In some traditions, the raven is a cultural hero and demiurge; he is associated with death and the world of the dead, with earth and sky, and endowed with shamanic power. The raven is often an intermediary between different worlds, between summer and winter, water and land, salt and fresh water. He figures in the myths of the flood, creates the earth, obtains fresh water from the owners of the salty sea.

Among the American Indians who lived in the forests of the east coast, the raven means cunning, he cunningly stole fire from the gods and passed it on to people.

In the Celtic epic, the raven is associated with the king (or finch) during divination, the "blessed raven" is an attribute of the goddesses of war and fertility, and is also associated with the goddess Morrigan. "Battle Raven" Bald symbolizes war, bloodshed, panic, anger. The Raven is an attribute of the hero Bendegate Bran. Loof has two magic crows.

The Germanic tribes also looked closely at the crows. For them, he was, above all, a military oracle. It was considered a good omen when the raven accompanied the speaking leaders. When Gakon made a bloody sacrifice to Odin, a raven appeared and croaked loudly. This has been interpreted as follows: Odin accepts the sacrifice, and Gacon will win the coming battle. The Scandinavians and ancient Germans depict two ravens on the shoulders of Odin-Wotan - Hugin ("thought") and Munin ("memory"), who fly around the world and report everything they saw.

Scandinavian legends describe how a crow is sent to explore new lands because there are no other birds besides him, capable of a long flight over long distances, with sharp eyesight, caution and ingenuity. Only such a smart and strong bird can get the necessary secret and not confuse anything.
In old Irish legends, the raven predicts the future, and the term “knowledge of the raven” preserved in the Irish language means the ability to see and know everything that happens.
Among the Vikings, the raven was a symbol of struggle and victory. They tried to take the ravens with them on numerous campaigns, and the birds did not resist this. They followed the Vikings for the same reason that wolves still accompany herds of caribou during migrations - in search of food. The Vikings revered the raven and were afraid of its unexpected appearance
The raven is the coat of arms of the ancient Danes (Danes) and Vikings.

In China, the raven is one of the animals of the "twelve earthly branches" and symbolizes power. A tripod raven lives on the Sun, symbolizing the three phases of its movement: sunrise, zenith, sunset.

In Egypt, the raven means destruction and malice.

Among the Roman augurs, the raven was considered one of the main oracle birds. During observations, the greatest importance was given to the voice of the bird and the side from which it appeared. A hoarsely croaking crow carried the worst omen. A bird flying from left to right also portended misfortune. If at the same time he also sat on a hollow oak, the augurs predicted the devastation of the land by enemy soldiers. The appearance of a large number of ravens meant an imminent disaster for the entire people. It is believed that crows predicted the death of many Roman military leaders and politicians.

In Ancient Greece it symbolizes longevity and is dedicated to Helios (Apollo) and is his messenger. Attribute of Athena, Kronos and Aesculapius. He is called upon at weddings as the personification of fertility.
The raven was Hera's sacred bird.
The ancient Greeks attached great importance to the clairvoyance of the raven. Plutarch reported that after the appearance of the ravens, the death of Alexander the Great in Babylon was predicted.
In Orphic art, the death raven is depicted with a pine cone and a torch of life and light.

The ancestors of Estonians feared rather than revered the crow. According to their ideas, he portends death or misfortune. Estonians believed that under the wing of a raven there is a special white feather, which was credited with miraculous powers. The one who possesses it supposedly can become happy or work miracles. The so-called "black stone" also possessed miraculous power, with the help of which you can heal various diseases, ward off evil, and understand the language of birds. According to the behavior of the raven, the weather was predicted.

According to Latvian beliefs, the cry of a raven or a raven foreshadowed the death of a close friend or war.

In the Jewish tradition, the raven is a symbol of carrion, impurity, death and destruction, deception. In Mithraism - the first stage of initiation, the servant of the Sun.

In Western European fairy tales, the raven (crow) brings good luck to the hero, often sacrificing himself.

In Bavaria, the raven is considered a bird of happiness.

In Albania, the cry of a black crow heralds the birth of a boy.

The Czechs believe that the raven brings babies.

In the culture of pagan Russia, corvids played a significant role, the attitude towards them was positive. Crows in myths and fairy tales belong to the pantheon of gods, they are depicted sitting on an oak - the sacred tree of the Slavs, symbolizing the world tree. Birds are called wise and prophetic, they are initiated into the mystery of living and dead water, seek and bring it to the resurrection of the heroes of fairy tales. In addition, the raven is a symbol of the life-giving spring rain and the cleansing spring thunder that awakens nature from winter sleep. Whoever kills a crow will never have livestock.
In Russian fairy tales, the raven is a prophetic bird, the wisest. She was endowed with the gift of words and omens. In the nests of a crow invisibly stored gold, silver and semi-precious stones, he takes out and brings "living" and "dead" water, golden apples. The raven, like a thundering bird, nests in dark clouds covering the "shining stars". On Thursday, a day dedicated to Perun, the raven bathes in the "living water" of the rain. The crow's croaking foreshadows the birth of a son - it was believed in Russia.
The raven was revered by the ancient Slavs and Arabs for a divine bird. No one dared to frighten him in the forest.

The raven became the central character in the myths of many peoples of North Asia and North America, especially the inhabitants of the tundra and sea coasts - the Chukchi, Koryak, Itelmen, Tlingit Indians, Eskimos.

Among the Chukchi, he is the protagonist of creation myths. He creates mountains, animals, the first people, teaches them to speak and eat animal flesh, obtains heavenly bodies that previously existed only in the upper universe.

Among the Koryaks and Itelmens, the raven was considered the ancestor. In the myths of the Koryaks, the raven obtains fresh water from the masters of the sea, abducts the heavenly bodies.

According to the ideas of the Itelmens, the raven Kutkh, together with his sister, displaced the earth from heaven, where he himself used to be, or he created it out of his son. Mountains and valleys are traces of this bird's presence in Kamchatka. The raven defeats evil spirits with shamanic powers and cunning, like a powerful shaman protects his family and people from them. He is not always a positive hero of folklore, he can be cunning and insidious, achieving his goals.

Residents of the Arctic learn when reindeer arrive during migrations by the appearance of ravens that accompany reindeer herds, feeding on the remains of wolf victims and the corpses of dead reindeer.

Among the Eskimos, the raven acts as a cultural hero. Among the Eskimos of Alaska, he created a man from a bean pod, and from clay he molded various animals and breathed life into them. First he created mountain goats and deer, and then a woman, who became the wife of the first man. Raven taught the Eskimos how to live on earth, how to get food. According to the myths of the Eskimos from Kodiak Island, the raven brought light into the world, at that moment a bubble with a man and a woman fell from the sky. They created mountains, forests and the animals that inhabit them.

In Yakut mythology, the raven has a demonic character. He is an attribute of Ulu Toyon, the mythical head of black shamans.

In Evenk myths, this bird is often an unsuccessful and disobedient assistant to the creator god.

Among the ranks, the raven was considered a sacred bird. He hatched an egg from which the ancestors of ranks emerged. Ravens are forbidden to kill.

In Christianity, the raven is the devil that feeds on corruption, the raven that pecks out the eyes is the devil that blinds sinners. The raven is a symbol of sin as opposed to the white dove, which represents an innocent soul. In the biblical story of the flood, the raven acts as a bad messenger, in contrast to the dove. It was he who brought the olive branch, which meant that the flood was over. The crows released earlier did not return, having eaten the carrion on the waves. In the future, this opposition is strengthened. In the Christian tradition, the raven becomes the personification of the forces of hell, and the dove - of paradise and the holy spirit. The raven sent from Noah's ark symbolizes wandering, anxiety and uncleanness. In the symbolism of the Fall, the raven sits on the Tree of Knowledge, from which Eve picks the fruit.
The raven also symbolizes solitude, and, consequently, the holy hermits, and is the emblem of St. Anthony, Benedict, Ida, Oswald, Paul the Recluse, Vincent.
Raven brought food to the prophet Elijah during his stay in the wilderness

In the Middle Ages, ravens were numerous in many cities of Great Britain, including London. They behaved like modern landfill ravens. After the famous London fire of 1666, these birds ate the unburied corpses of people and multiplied in such numbers that they became annoying. Residents turned to the king with a request to help get rid of them. However, the soothsayer explained that if all the ravens in London were destroyed, then all sorts of misfortunes would fall on England and the royal palace would crumble to dust. In the seventeenth century. a flock of ravens with their cries woke up the royal guard during the attack of the detachment of O. Cromwell. Since that time, by royal decree, a small group of ravens are kept in the Tower. Now there are "registered" six birds, each of which has its own nickname. When a raven dies, it is buried near the gate by placing a label with its name.
It is interesting that the synanthropic population of almost tame ravens existed in the 17th-19th centuries. in the Solovetsky Monastery.

In heraldry, the raven is a symbol of prudence and longevity, military courage and death. The raven is quite common on the coats of arms. There is such a legend in Switzerland. A resident of Einsiedeln Meinrad (later canonized) in the winter frosty forest found two ravens dying from the cold and left them. When he was killed, both crows, with whom the hermit shared the last crumbs of bread in the forest, chased the murderers with shouts all the way to Zurich, and calmed down only when they were executed. Since then, the Gostiny Dvor, in which the killers were detained, bears the name of a raven; birds are depicted on a shield at the entrance. In honor of the ravens of St. Mainrad, several of these birds constantly lived in the shelter of the city. Ravens became the attributes of St. Mainrad, and later two birds were depicted on the coat of arms of the Einsiedeln Abbey.

Edgar Alan Poe's poem "The Raven" ** is considered one of the most significant in the history of poetry.
One of the most popular Russian folk songs is called "Black Raven".
The Scorpions song "Yellow raven".
The movie The Crow, is notable for the plot in which the raven is the guardian angel of the protagonist.

When writing this term paper, the following sources were used:

http://www.sunterra.ru/universe/animals/totem-animal/totem-16.html
http://myf.bestcode.org/myth-animals/voron.html
http://sueverija.narod.ru/Muzei/Voron.htm
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BD
http://ashavan.narod.ru/totem/mesyasi/voron.htm
http://shriyantra2007.narod.ru/lib/astro002.htm#voron
http://www.slovarik.kiev.ua/symbol/v/129684.html


  • Common Raven (Corvus corax)
  • jackdaw (Corvus monedula)
  • daurian jackdaw (Corvus dauuricus)
  • rook (Corvus frugilegus)
  • hooded crow (Corvus cornix)
  • black crow (Corvus corone)
  • American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
  • house crow (Corvus splendens)
  • large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos)
  • Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos levaillantii)
  • New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides)
  • Jamaican crow (Corvus jamaicensis)
  • Hawaiian crow (Corvus hawaiiensis)
  • fine-billed crow (Corvus enca)
  • Piping Crow (Corvus typicus)
  • Banggai Crow (Corvus unicolor)
  • Flores Crow (Corvus florensis)
  • Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi)
  • Long-billed Crow (Corvus validus)
  • White-billed Crow (Corvus woodfordi)
  • Bougainville Crow (Corvus meeki)
  • Brown-headed Crow (Corvus fuscicapillus)
  • Gray Crow (Corvus tristis)
  • Cape crow (Corvus capensis)
  • northwest crow (Corvus caurinus)
  • Cuban Palm Crow (Corvus minutus)
  • Hispaniolan Palm Crow (Corvus palmarum)
  • Cuban Crow (Corvus nasicus)
  • White-necked Crow (Corvus leucognaphalus)
  • Tamaulipas Crow (Corvus imparatus)
  • Sinaloa Crow (Corvus sinaloae)
  • fish crow (Corvus ossifragus)
  • American White-necked Raven (Corvus cryptoleucus)
  • Australian crow (Corvus orru)
  • lesser crow (Corvus bennetti)
  • Australian Raven (Corvus coronoides)
  • Little Raven (Corvus mellori)
  • Tasmanian Raven (Corvus tasmanicus)
  • Relict Raven (Corvus tasmanicus boreus)
  • painted crow (Corvus torquatus)
  • spotted crow (Corvus albus)
  • Somali Crow (Corvus edithae) or Dwarf Raven
  • Desert Raven (Corvus ruficollis)
  • trumpet raven (Corvus rhipidurus)
  • white-necked crow (Corvus albicollis)
  • thick-billed crow (Corvus crassirostris)

Translation by Dm. Merezhkovsky

Immersed in mute sorrow
and tired, in the deaf night,
Once, when wilted in a doze
I'm over the book alone
From the knowledge forgotten by the world,
a book full of charms, -
A knock came, an unexpected knock
at the door of my house:
"This traveler knocked
at the door of my house,
Only a traveler -
nothing else".

In December - I remember - there was
it's midnight dull.
There are coals in the hearth under the ashes
flared up sometimes.
The piles of books did not satisfy
not for a moment of my sorrow -
Lost Lenore
the one whose name is forever -
In the host of angels - Lenora,
the one whose name is forever
In this world it is erased -
without a trace.

From the breath of the stormy night
curtains silk purple
Rustled and incomprehensible
fear was born from everything.
I thought I'd calm my heart
still kept repeating at times:
"This guest knocks timidly
at the door of my house,
The belated guest is knocking
at the door of my house,
Only a guest -
and nothing more!"

And when it overcame
heart fear, I said boldly:
"You will forgive me, offend
I didn't want anyone
I fell asleep for a moment anxiously:
too quiet, careful, -
You knocked too quietly
at the door of my house. "
And then I opened wide
the doors of my house -
The darkness of the night, -
and nothing more.

All that worried my spirit
everything that dreamed and confused,
Until now, haven't visited
there is no one in this world.
And no voice, no sign -
from the mysterious darkness.
Suddenly "Lenora!" sounded
near my dwelling.
I whispered this name myself,
and woke up from him
Only an echo -
nothing else.

But my soul was on fire
I closed the door timidly.
The knocking came louder again
I thought, "Nothing,
It's a random knock on the window
there is no mystery here:
I will look and calm down
trembling of my heart,
I will calm down for a moment
trembling of my heart.
This is the wind, -
nothing else".

I opened the window and strange
midnight guest, unexpected guest,
The regal raven flies in
I greetings from him
Not wait. But bravely -
as a host, proudly, important
He flew straight to the door
to the door of my house,
And he flew to the bust of Pallas,
sat down so quietly on it,
He sat down quietly, -
and nothing more.

No matter how sad, no matter how painful, -
I smiled involuntarily
And he said, "Your deceit
we will win without difficulty,
But you, my ominous guest,
The raven is ancient. Prophetic raven,
To us from the limits of the eternal Night
arriving here
What is the name in the country from where
are you coming here? "
And the Raven answered:
"Never".

The bird speaks so clearly
I cannot wonder.
But it seemed like hope
was forever alien to her.
Do not expect yourself to be glad
in whose house is the bust of Pallas
The Raven will sit over the doors,
from misfortune nowhere, -
The one who saw the Crow -
will not be saved anywhere,
The crow, whose name is:
"Never".

He spoke this word
so sad, so harsh
That seemed to have his whole soul
poured out, and that's when
Immovable on the statues
he sat in silent silence,
I whispered: "How happiness, friendship
flew away forever
This bird will fly away too
tomorrow morning forever. "
And the Raven answered:
"Never".

And I said, shuddering again:
"It is right to say this word
Taught by his master
on hard days when
He was persecuted by Rock,
and in misfortune lonely,
Instead of a swan song
in these long years
For him there was a single groan
in these sad years -
Never - no more
never!"

So I thought and involuntarily
smiled, no matter how painful.
Turned the chair quietly
to the pale bust, there,
Where was the Raven, plunged
in velvet armchairs and forgotten.
"Scary Raven, my terrible
guest, - I thought then -
Scary, ancient Raven, grief
always proclaiming
What does your cry mean:
"Never"?

I try in vain to guess
Raven looks unrequited.
Your burning gaze in my heart
he dropped it forever.
And in meditation on the riddle,
I wilted in a sweet slumber
Head on velvet, by a lamp
illuminated. Never
On the purple velvet of armchairs
like in happy years,
She really shouldn't bend -
never!

And it seemed to me: flowing
smoke invisible censer,
The Seraphim have arrived,
rustled sometimes
Their steps are like a breath:
"It is God who sends me oblivion!
Drink sweet oblivion
drink to your heart forever
Lost Lenore
memory is erased - forever.
And the Raven said to me:
"Never".

"I pray, the ominous prophet,
you are a bird or a prophetic demon,
Is the Spirit of you evil from the Night,
or a whirlwind brought here
From the desert, dead, eternal,
hopeless, endless, -
Will you please tell me
will there be even where
We will descend after death, -
heart rest forever? "
And the Raven answered:
"Never".

"I pray, the ominous prophet,
you are a bird or a prophetic demon,
I conjure the sky. By god
answer that day when
I will see Eden distant,
I will embrace with a sad soul
Light soul of Lenora,
the one whose name is forever
In the host of angels - Lenora,
radiant forever? "
And the Raven answered:
"Never".

"Get out!" I exclaimed, getting up,
you are demon or an evil bird.
Away! - return to the limits of the Night,
never again
None of the feathers are black
did not remind the shameful,
Your lying words! Leave
bust of Pallas forever,
From my soul your image
I will pluck forever! "
And the Raven answered:
"Never".

And sits, sits since then
there, above the door, the black Raven,
From the bust of the pale Pallas
will not disappear anywhere.
He has such eyes
like the Evil Spirit of the night,
Embraced by sleep, and a lamp
casts a shadow. Forever and ever
To this shadow of a black bird
nailed forever, -
My spirit will not rise -
never!

Ⓘ Jamaican Raven

The Jamaican Raven is a small bird 35 - 38 cm in length. The plumage is gray, devoid of colored sheen, unlike other species. Around the eyes and beak of the Jamaican raven, the skin is dark gray, devoid of plumage. The bill is bluish-gray in color, rather long and tapers towards a sharp end. The bristles on the nostrils are quite sparse, so the nostrils are open. The iris is gray-brown or reddish brown and is thought to vary with age. Legs are black.

These birds are extremely intelligent and careful.

Close relatives common in the far part of Western India are the Cuban crow Corvus nasicus and the Antillean crow Corvus leucognaphalus.

Endemic Birds of Jamaica

Jamaica's endemic birds include a number of bird families, and although some families only have one endemic species on the island, they are all different.

Plan a visit for 4-7 days to ensure sufficient time to visit the various habitats and locations.

Arrange experienced local guides to maximize bird watching.

  • Get ready for long days of bird's eye view and challenging terrain for the most elusive species.
  • Plan a visit during your migration for the largest variety of birds on the island.
    With a total of 28 endemic birds and hundreds of bird species visiting the island, Jamaica is an ideal bird destination. Proper planning to target endemic species can lead to amazing bird experiences for birds of all levels, no matter how much time they have to spend on the island.

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