Bougainvillea (from Lat. Bougainvillea) is a beautifully flowering perennial plant that delights people with its appearance. This perennial gets along in almost all conditions, therefore it often decorates the interior of rooms and office buildings. Thanks to its evergreen appearance and bright inflorescences, bougainvillea delights the eye all year round.
- Botanical description of the flower
- Types and varieties of bougainvillea
- Brazilian views
- Bougainvillea nude
- Bougainvillea is beautiful
- Bougainvillea Peruvian
- Bougainvillea hybrid varieties
- Varieties that change color
- Bicolor varieties
- Variegated bougainvillea varieties
- Bonsai varieties
- Terry varieties
- How to care for bougainvillea when growing in a room
- Air humidity
- Soil mixture
- Bougainvillea transplant
- Vaccination of a different variety
- Reproduction of bougainvillea
- Air layering
- Bougainvillea from seed
- Why bougainvillea doesn't bloom
- Bougainvillea disease
- Leaves fall
- The foliage has faded
- Spots on the leaves
- Yellowing and flying around foliage
- Stopped growth
- Application to medicine
Botanical description of the flower
Bougainvillea is a wild tree, reaching a height of 5 meters. A feature of the plant is the small size that the flower reaches when grown at home. For indoor cultivation, the culture does not exceed 1.5 meters in upward. Some varieties are climbing shrubs, which are quite rare in their natural environment.
The plant belongs to the family of Nicholas. According to other data, the culture is referred to as the Niktaginovs. The presence of thorns and liana-like branches on the stems of the tree helps the plant to cling to the supports and grow high up.
The plant has a dense stem, highly branched. As the culture grows, the stem grows stiff and thickens. The bark is a brown, uneven surface covering the shoots and stems. With age, the bark of the tree changes color to grayish.
The branches of the plant are located closer to the top. The branches are abundantly covered with foliage. Leaves are arranged on petioles. The leaf plate is bright green, there are leaves with spots. The leaves are even, smooth, with smooth edges and a pointed end. The foliage is small in size, the size does not exceed 5 cm. On the branches the foliage is located next. The shape of the leaf plate is round or ovoid.
Flowers do not represent decorativeness, as they quickly fall off. Flowering occurs in June. The inflorescences hide among the lush foliage, so they are practically invisible on the tree. The flowers consist of 5 petals, white or cream in color, with curved edges.
The bracts give the plant decorativeness. The variety of species allows you to grow bougainvillea with pink, raspberry, yellow or red bracts. There are three large petals around each flower bud. Some hybrids on one plant have several shades of bracts. The surface of the bracts has a very thin plate, with visible veins on it. During flowering, thanks to the bracts, the trees become almost completely covered with multi-colored petals.
Hybrid varieties are of particular interest to flower growers, since individual plant varieties can have bracts of two colors on one plant. At the same time, trees of the most diverse sizes amaze with a variety of forms of bracts - arrow-shaped, semicircular and even triangular.
The plant prefers arid and warm regions, since bougainvillea is native to the southern regions of America. The flower is thermophilic, it grows in places with a year-round warm climate. Certain varieties are found in Brazil, where bougainvillea grows in rocky places and hills. Prefers carbonate soil. The plant is also common in Colombia, Peru.
Types and varieties of bougainvillea
In nature, there are only 15 varieties of bougainvillea. However, there are many hybrid varieties that are derived from three different species.
There are about 5 varieties. Brazilian species are one of a kind, lend themselves well to breeding and hybridization.
Bougainvillea hybrid varieties
The large number of varieties is due to the good crossing of three main species among themselves - Peruvian, beautiful and naked bougainvillea. The most popular varieties are:
- Sanderiana is a cross between a beautiful bougainvillea and a naked bougainvillea. A special feature is the appearance in mid-April of bright purple bracts, inside which there are small creamy flowers. Since the plant is easy to cut, the cultivar is often grown at home. In addition, unpretentiousness and a large number of colors led to the widespread use of the variety in decorating parks and building facades.
- Vera Deep Purple is a small bush type bougainvillea. A feature of the variety is the presence of large bracts, which, with abundant flowering, cover the entire tree, like a blanket of lilac or crimson color.
- Glabra Donker is a variety similar in shape and appearance to the previous one. A feature of the variety is the presence of bracts, mainly at the top of young shoots. Blooms all summer with white inconspicuous inflorescences. Bracts abundantly cover the tops of the stems with pink or purple petals.
- Doña is a popular variety among flower growers, since flowering lasts almost all year. Fluffy shrub up to 3 meters high. A large number of stems in spring are abundantly covered with bracts of a pink or purple hue. The variety looks spectacular in the garden, therefore it is often found for decoration.
- Jamaica White - a feature of the variety is the presence on the tree of an abundant number of bracts of a rich white color. In combination with dark glossy foliage, the plant looks unusual. The tree can be grown at home, since the size of bougainvillea does not exceed a meter in height.
- White Cascade is a short bougainvillea tree or shrub. In spring, against the background of dark green foliage, an abundant number of small nondescript white flowers appear, which are practically invisible against the background of bracts. The bracts of this variety are ivory. A feature of the variety is the presence of large leaves, rounded, dark green in color.
- California Gold is an unusual variety that is covered in yellow or golden bracts for most of the season, which is abundant throughout the tree. The height of the plant allows it to be kept in the conditions of offices and rooms. However, with a lack of light, bougainvillea can confuse the flowering seasons.
- Golden Tango - an abundance of large yellow bracts against a background of dark green foliage makes the culture decorative for the entire flowering period. The plant grows well in places with climates reaching 5 degrees below zero. A special feature is the number of bracts under each flower, which reaches 6-7 petals.
- Tomato Red is a short representative who gets along well with home conditions. The plant is decorative with its burgundy bracts, which cover almost the entire bush. Small white flowers against the background of large bracts give bougainvillea extraordinary beauty.
- Lateritia is an unusual hybrid that grows in the form of a bush. A feature of the variety is the decorative appearance of the bracts - in the sun, the petals are reflected in orange shades, but in fact have a scarlet color.
Today bougainvillea is abundantly bred and hybridized. The number of varieties is increasing every year. Varieties are being developed that can withstand moderate climatic conditions and are more frost-resistant to temperature extremes.
Varieties that change color
Today, flower growers have managed to develop new varieties that, as they grow, change the shade of the bracts. The most common varieties are:
- Bois De Roses is a perennial tree-like plant that, as it blooms, changes the orange hue of the bracts to bright pink and even purple. the bracts are terry, therefore, around the flower on the peduncle, 6-7 petals appear at the same time, decorating the culture,
- Thai Gold is a bougainvillea that has double inflorescences with golden or orange bracts petals. By the end of the ripening of the buds, the petals change their shade to a delicate pink or lilac shade.
Due to its beauty, bougainvillea is of particular interest to flower growers. Therefore, varieties are constantly being updated and new ones are being developed.
Florists who are considering and breeding new varieties of bougainvillea, by crossing different species, managed to obtain varieties that have two shades of bracts on one plant at once:
- Snowcap Multi and Strawberry Lace are two varieties with the same description and characteristics. They grow in the form of a bush, up to 3 meters in height. The plant is unique for its bracts. At the time of flowering, white and bright pink bracts appear simultaneously on different branches on the same plant. In addition, many of the petals of the bracts are colored in a double color combination. Due to their characteristics and color, the plants are similar to strawberries with cream.
- Mary Palmer is a flowering shrub or tree that is special for its flowers. Compared to previous varieties, this subspecies has dull shades of pink and white, due to which it looks unusual and delivers decorativeness with its attractive appearance.
Efforts to breed more bicolor bougainvilleas are constantly bearing fruit. Every year the plants acquire a new color, and growers get new hybrids.
Variegated bougainvillea varieties
The decorativeness of some varieties is due to the growth of variegated leaves on the stems. Various shades of green on the surface of the leaf plate give an unusual, decorative appearance to the culture.
- San Diego Red Variegata is a representative of bougainvillea, which has a variety of foliage colors. Each leaf combines yellow, gold and green tones that shine in the sun and shimmer with bright hues. A feature of this variety is the presence of rich red bracts and white flowers, which look decorative during cultivation.
- Delta Dawn is a bougainvillea cultivar that combines dark foliage with iridescent shades of yellow and white. The variety blooms with white flowers, around which large orange or brown bracts appear.
Hybrid varieties also include plants that are easy to prune. Due to this combination of properties and beauty, the plant is often planted at home:
- Bougainvillea Alexandra is a small tree-like variety that is great for indoor cultivation. In addition, due to its unpretentiousness, the culture can be grown in garden plantings and in a flower bed. In the open field, the plant does not withstand low temperatures, therefore, to guarantee flowering, the tree is planted only in the south. It is a small tree with a dense stem. The top of the stem is strongly branched, forming a crown. By the beginning of April, Alexandra begins to bloom with bright white flowers, which become noticeable thanks to the purple bracts.
- Butiana is a representative of perennial trees, evergreen and flowering several times a year. A feature of the variety is the possibility and easy tolerance of any pruning. Thanks to this, the bush can be cut to obtain any kind.
Gardeners and florists, using various varieties and features of the culture, grow beautiful corners in the southern zone, decorated with richly blooming bougainvillea.
Terry bougainvillea varieties are of particular interest to flower growers as they are lush, evergreen varieties. In nature, there are red, burgundy, purple and other varieties of bougainvillea.
Double Red is a decorative terry representative that combines rich green leaves, abundant and dense stems, as well as bright pink or crimson bracts that pubesce the tree. Due to its beauty, it is appreciated among flower growers.
Double Pink is another lovely terry shrub. The bracts are endowed with a delicate pink color, which is combined with glossy light green foliage.
How to care for bougainvillea when growing in a room
The main rule of keeping bougainvillea in a home climate is to create comfort for the plant, which will provide long flowering and rich color of the bracts to ensure growth and reproduction.
For the normal growth of bougainvillea, they pay attention to the choice of soil mixture and a pot in which the flower will be comfortable. The quality of lighting and the temperature at which the tree is contained are of no small importance.
In nature, bougainvillea receives a large amount of sun, because it lives in the tropical zone. When growing a culture at home, a container with a seedling is placed in a place that is exposed to sunlight for at least a quarter of a day. Bougainvillea is not afraid of direct sunlight on the leaves, therefore it does not require shelter, even on dry days. In the case of a small amount of light, the culture fades and stops growing, the brightness of the bracts decreases.
Lighting in winter is a prerequisite for the normal existence of bougainvillea. So, even during the dormant period, the bush must be placed in direct sunlight or under an artificial light lamp.
An important rule of thumb in breeding bougainvillea in a home climate is that the plant does not tolerate constant movement. Therefore, you cannot put a container with a culture in different places in search of a convenient and comfortable one. It is necessary to immediately place the flower in a regular growing place.
The plant is from tropical zones, therefore it prevails only in warmth. The culture does not tolerate temperature extremes, therefore, even in the cold season, the thermometer mark should not fall below 5 degrees. In summer, the optimal climate is about 25 degrees Celsius, and in winter the plant should be kept warm no more than 15 degrees.
Lowering the temperature for rest is necessary so that the bush can calmly prepare for flowering and lay buds for future flowering. If winter conditions contain higher temperatures, the bougainvillea is provided with ample lighting.
At home, in order to create optimal conditions for bougainvillea, it is worth creating a lot of humidity. For the normal growth of the flower, regularly spray the air next to the crop, and also humidify the air in various ways. Much attention is paid to air humidity during budding.
During the budding period, the culture is no longer sprayed from the spray bottle, since moisture that gets on the flowers and bracts can destroy the buds. In this case, to ensure the importance of air, a tray of water is placed under the pot with the culture.
During the growth and development of bougainvillea, the plant is provided with abundant regular watering.However, soil pots should not contain excess moisture, as stagnant liquid leads to root rot. Watering bougainvillea is necessary as the topsoil dries out.
In the fall, watering is reduced so that the plant stops growing and prepares for hibernation. By frost, watering completely stops. In winter, watering the plant is extremely rare, no more than twice a month.
When grown indoors, bougainvillea is regularly fed with liquid fertilizers. At the same time, the fertilizer should contain a large amount of minerals, and a minimum amount of nitrogen-containing elements. An excess of nitrogen can lead to the cessation of flowering.
A light and well-ventilated substrate is required to breed and maintain bougainvillea. When growing at home, some growers use soil for flowering crops, which you can buy or make yourself. To prepare the mixture, mix equal parts of turf and garden soil, add part of the sand and humus. As additional elements, some growers add clay, chalk or vermiculite to the soil. For optimal growth, the soil should have an acidity of no more than 6 pH units.
When grown indoors, great care should be taken when choosing a pot for a plant. In its natural environment, bougainvillea gets along well in a confined space, growing in rocky soil or in a clamped form. Therefore, when planting bougainvillea at home, choose a small pot.
A large amount of space stimulates the growth of foliage and stems, but this is detrimental to the intensity and number of flowers. In addition, a large amount of soil leads to acidification of the rhizome, which cannot cope with large volumes of soil.
When transplanting plants, use pots with a diameter exceeding the previous one by only a few centimeters. When transplanting bougainvillea, take into account the fact that the height of the pot should be greater than its diameter.
After a dormant period, the plant requires a transplant, since at this time the flower begins to gain its color. When transplanting bougainvillea from a pot, they take it out carefully with all the substrate. A layer of expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the new pot. Then they fall asleep and moisten the soil. The plant is placed in a new pot along with a lump of earth, as the thin roots break and damage easily.
Flowers are laid in winter, by the beginning of spring the plant is already spreading and opening the bracts. Moreover, some varieties are so covered with stipules that leaves are not visible.
Young plants need replanting 1-2 times a year. Since intensive growth and the appearance of a large number of rhizomes quickly replace the entire cavity of the pot. Adults do not require frequent transplanting - it is enough to change the soil mixture every 5 years.
The flowering of the inflorescences themselves lasts only a few days, but the bracts protect their beauty for many months. However, some varieties change their shade as bougainvillea grows.
After flowering, to preserve the decorative appearance, the bracts are removed with scissors. Thus, new flowering is stimulated. When pruning, you need to leave about 5 shoots on the branch.
When caring for bougainvillea, pruning the shrub is of great importance. Pruning not only gives the plant a lush, beautiful shape, but also helps stimulate the shoots. When pruning, about a third of live young shoots are removed, and old and dry branches are also removed.
For the normal development of the flower, pruning is carried out three times a year. In the spring, dried shoots are removed, in the summer they stimulate the plant to bloom again, and in the fall they give the plant its basic shape and prepare the flower for wintering.
Bougainvillea easily survives pruning, which allows the plant to be given the desired shape. So, flower growers give the plant a shrubby appearance, the appearance of a small single-stemmed tree. The variety of forms determines the widespread use of bougainvillea among decorators.
An important point when pruning a plant is to preserve about 7 cm of young shoots. This is due to the fact that old shoots often do not wake up from hibernation, they stop blooming.
Vaccination of a different variety
To get a new look, some growers graft branches of a different variety to the plant. In order to be vaccinated, you must:
- A deep incision is made on the rootstock with a sterile instrument,
- With the same tool, cut a branch from the bush that will be grafted,
- The graft is ground and attached to the hole in the rootstock,
- To fix the branch, you must use a plaster or electrical tape.
The fixing material is removed a few months after grafting, when the plant has fully grown.
In winter, bougainvillea has a dormant period. At this time, the plant stops growing and blooming. During the dormant period, bougainvillea does not require frequent watering. An important point in growing a crop is a large amount of light, even in winter. Therefore, the plant is placed in a cool, well-lit place.
In winter, the plant grows buds for flowering, so regular light and warmth are important for bougainvillea. The optimum temperature for wintering is about 15 degrees.
Reproduction of bougainvillea
If you want to breed bougainvillea, you can use three methods - using cuttings, seeds or air layers.
Reproduction of bougainvillea by cuttings is the simplest method of breeding a new individual. To obtain a new bougainvillea, cuttings are chosen at the beginning of summer, when the culture has half-matured and barked stems. To preserve the decorative effect of an adult, only those branches that have no flowers or grow inward are allowed on the cuttings. Before planting, the cuttings should be cleaned from the bottom of the foliage, and after planting, the container is covered with a film or a lid.
For quick rooting, before planting, the cut site is treated with coal or Zirconium. It is necessary to keep the pot of cuttings in a damp, warm and well-lit area. Watering the flower regularly. In addition, every day it is necessary to remove the cover from the pot so that the cuttings are ventilated.
After the appearance of young leaves on the plant and the growth of the cuttings in growth, the film should be removed. After 5-7 weeks, the plant sprouts. The flower can then be planted in a large pot or permanent habitat.
The plant is bred using air layers in any season of active growth. For this, soil mixture for bougainvillea is collected in a pot or other container. The pot is placed next to the main individual.
On the main plant, a long young shoot is picked up, which has no bark on the trunk. Several shallow cuts should be made in the places of the proposed rooting. After that, the place of the incisions is tilted to the prepared pot and attached to the ground using a hairpin or other similar tools. It is important that the stalk is close to the soil. After the appearance of the roots, the plant is cut off from the mother.
Why bougainvillea doesn't bloom
Some novice growers cannot understand why flowers do not appear on bougainvillea for a long time. There may be several reasons for this:
- The pot is too big
- The flower did not rest over the winter due to improper care conditions,
- The plant lacks sunlight
- The flower is in a cool place
- The soil is too ozonized.
With proper care, bougainvillea flowers will delight with long and lush flowering.
Bougainvillea is quite unpretentious to growing conditions, however, with improper flower care, the plant can get sick.
Before wintering, flying around the foliage is considered the norm. However, at other times of the year, drafts or the transfer of bougainvillea from one window to another may be the cause of leaves flying around. In addition, the culture does not tolerate moving well, so the foliage often falls off after buying a new individual.
The foliage has faded
Dullness and lethargy of the leaves is the first sign of chlorosome. The reason for this condition is considered to be an insufficient supply of iron and other minerals to the plant. To return to the previous state, the plant is fed and fertilized with iron containing fertilizers.
Spots on the leaves
The reason for this condition is stagnation of water in the substrate. To eliminate the problem, the stained foliage is removed, and the plant is provided with regular watering and ventilation.
Yellowing and flying around foliage
The reason is the abundant amount of watering, which leads to acidification of the rhizome and the appearance of stagnant moisture. To eliminate this problem, the culture is provided with regular watering, depending on the season and the period of active growth.
To stimulate growth, it is necessary to transplant the crop into a larger pot. As growth stagnation often occurs due to insufficient space inside the pot for root development. Growth also stops in old bushes. In this case, it is necessary to propagate the culture to obtain a young plant.
Bougainvillea is rarely sabotaged. Sometimes sucking insects appear on the flower, which suck sap and nutrients from the leaves. Among the pests of bougainvillea, aphids, spider mites and powdery mildew are noted. You can eliminate problems with fungicides.
Application to medicine
In the South of America, bougainvillea leaves and flowers are used to prepare decoctions and infusions. The use of these drugs is due to a pronounced expectorant effect and local anesthetic properties.
A decoction of bougainvillea stems is used to improve the blood supply to the vessels of the brain and to optimize blood pressure.
Since traditional medicine does not use bougainvillea as a medicine, decoctions and infusions can be used only after consulting a doctor. In addition, you can not use the culture during pregnancy and allergies to components.